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Dyeing Union (mixed Cotton And Wool) Fabrics






There is now produced a great variety of textile fabrics of every
conceivable texture by combining the two fibres, cotton and wool, in a
number of ways. The variety of these fabrics has of late years
considerably increased, which increase may be largely ascribed to the
introduction of the direct dyeing colouring matters--the Diamine dyes,
the Benzo dyes, the Congo and the Zambesi dyes; for in the dyeing of
wool-cotton fabrics they have made a revolution. The dyer of union
fabrics, that is fabrics composed of wool and cotton, was formerly put
to great straits to obtain uniform shades on the fabrics supplied to
him owing to the difference in the affinity of the fibres for the
dye-stuffs then known. Now the direct dyes afford him a means of
easily dyeing a piece of cotton-wool cloth in any colour of a uniform
shade, while the production of two-coloured effects is much more under
his control, and has led to the increased production of figured dress
fabrics with the ground in one fibre (wool) and colour, and the design
in another fibre (cotton) and colour. The number of direct dyes issued
by the various colour manufacturers is so great that it would take a
fairly considerable space to discuss them all.

To obtain good results it is needful that the dyer of union fabrics
should be a man of keen observation and have a thorough knowledge of
the dyes he is using, for each dye makes a rule to itself as regards
its power of dyeing wool and cotton; some go better on to the (p. 169)
cotton than on to the wool, and vice versa. Some dye wool best
at the boil, others equally well below that heat; some go on the
cotton at a moderate temperature, others require the dye-bath to be
boiling; some will go to the cotton only and appear to ignore the
wool.

The presence or absence in the dye-bath of such bodies as carbonate of
soda, Glauber's salt, etc., has a material influence on the degree of
the affinity of the dye-stuff for the two fibres, as will perhaps be
noted hereafter. Again, while some of the dyes produce equal colours
on both fibres, there are others where the tone is different. With all
these peculiarities of the Diamine and other direct dyes the union
dyer must make himself familiar. These dyes are used in neutral baths,
that is, along with the dye-stuff. It is often convenient to use along
with the direct dyes some azo or acid dyes which have the property of
dyeing the wool from neutral baths; many examples of such will be
found in the practical recipes given below. The dyes now under
consideration may be conveniently classed into five groups.

(1) Those dyes which dye the cotton and wool from the same bath to
the same shade, or nearly so.--Among such are Thioflavine S, Diamine
Fast Yellow B, Diamine Orange B, Diamine Rose B D, Diamine Reds 4 B,
5 B, 6 B and 10 B, Diamine Fast Red F, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine
Brown N, Diamine Brown 3 G, B and G W, Diamine Blue R W, B X, Diamine
Blue G, Diamine Greens G and B, Diamine Black H W, Diamine Dark
Blue B, Union Black B and S, Oxydiamine Blacks B, M, D and A, Diamine
Catechine G, Union Blue B B, Oxyphenine, Chloramine Yellow,
Thioflavine S, Alkali Yellow R, Chromine G, Titan Scarlet S, Mimosa,
Primuline, Auroline, Congo Corinth B, Thiazol Yellow, Columbia Yellow,
Oxydiamine Yellow G G, Oxydiamine Oranges G and R, Diamine (p. 170)
Orange O, Oxydiamine Red S.

(2) Dyes which dye the cotton a deeper shade than the wool.--The
following belong to this group. Diamine Fast Yellow A, Diamine
Orange G and D, Diamine Catechine G, Diamine Catechine B, Diamine sky
Blue, Diamine Blues 2 B, Diamine Blue 3 B, Diamine Blue B G, Diamine
Brilliant Blue G, Diamine New Blue R, Diamine Steel Blue L, Diamine
Black R O, Diamine Black B O, Diamine Black B H, and Oxydiamine Black
S O O O, Diamine Nitrazol Brown G, Diamine Catechine B, Diamine Sky
Blue F F, Diamine Dark Blue B, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine Violet N,
Oxydiamine Violet B, Columbia Black B and F B, Zambesi Black B, Congo
Brown G, Direct Yellow G, Direct Orange R, Clayton Yellow, Cotton
Yellow, Orange T A, Benzopurpurine B, Brilliant Congo R, Chicago
Blues B, 4 B and 6 B.

(3) Dyes which dye wool a deeper shade than the cotton.--The dyes in
this group are not numerous. They are Diamine Gold, Diamine Scarlet B,
Diamine Scarlet 3 B, Diamine Bordeaux S, Diamine Blue R W, and Diamine
Green G, Diamine Red N O and B, Chicago Blue G and R R W, Brilliant
Purpurine R, Diamine Scarlet B, Deltapurpurine 5 B, Chrysamine, Titan
Blue, Titan Pink, Congo Oranges G and R, Erie Blue 2 G, Congo R,
Brilliant Congo R, Erika B N, Benzopurpurine 4 B and 10 B,
Chrysophenine, Titan Yellow, Titan Brown Y, R and O, Congo Brown G,
Sulphon Azurine B, Zambesi Black D.

(4) Dyes which produce different shades on the two fibres.--Diamine
Brown G and Diamine Blue 3 R, Diamine Brown V, Diamine Brown S,
Diamine Nitrazol Brown B, Diamine Blue B X and 3 R, Diamine Blue
Black E, Benzo Blue Black G, Benzopurpurine 10 B, Benzo Azurine R G
and 3 G, Columbia Red S B, Brilliant Azurine 5 G, Titan Marine (p. 171)
Blue, Congo Corinths G and B, Azo Blue, Hessian Violet, Titan
Blue, Azo Mauve, Congo Brown, Diamine Bronze G, Zambesi Browns G and
2 G, Zambesi Black F.

(5) Azo acid dyes which dye wool from neutral baths, and are
therefore suitable for shading up the wool to the cotton in union
fabric dyeing.--Among the dyes thus available may be enumerated
Naphthol Blue G and E, Naphthol Blue Black, Formyl Violet 10 B,
Lanacyl Blue B B, Lanacyl Blue R, Alkaline Blue, Formyl Violet S 4 B
and 6 B, Rocceleine, Azo Red A, Croceine A Z, Brilliant Scarlet,
Orange extra, Orange E N Z, Indian Yellow G, Indian Yellow R,
Tropaeoline O O, Naphthylamine Black 4 B, and Naphthol Blue Black,
Brilliant Scarlet G, Lanacyl Violet B, Brilliant Milling Green B,
Thiocarmine R, Formyl Blue B, Naphthylamine Blacks D, 4 B and 6 B, Azo
Acid Yellow, Curcumine Extra, Mandarine G, Ponceau 3 R B, Acid Violet
6 B, Guinea Violet 4 B, Guinea Green B, Wool Black 6 B.

Regarding the best methods of dyeing, that in neutral baths yields the
most satisfactory results in practical working. It is done in a
boiling hot or in a slightly boiling bath with the addition of
6-1/4 oz. crystallised Glauber's salt per gallon water for the first
bath, and when the baths are kept standing 20 per cent. crystallised
Glauber's salt reckoned upon the weight of the goods for each
succeeding lot.

In dyeing unions, the dye-baths must be as concentrated as possible
and must not contain more than from 25 to 30 as much water as the
goods weigh. In this respect it serve as a guide that concentrated
baths are best used dyeing dark shades while light shades can be dyed
in more dilute baths. The most important factor for producing uniform
dyeings is the appropriate regulation of the temperature of the
dye-bath. Concerning this the dyer must bear in mind that the direct
colours possess a greater affinity for cotton if dyed below the
boiling-point, and only go on the wool when the bath is boiling, (p. 172)
especially so the longer and more intensely the goods are boiled.

The following method of dyeing is perhaps the best one. Charge the
dye-bath with the requisite dye-stuff and Glauber's salt, boil up,
shut off the steam, enter the goods and let run for half an hour,
without steam, then sample. If the shade of both cotton and wool is
too light, add some more of the dye-stuffs used for both fibres, boil
up once more, and boil for a quarter to half an hour. If the wool only
is too light, or its shade different from that of the cotton, add some
more of the dye-stuff used for shading the wool and bring them again
to the boil. If, however, the cotton turns out too light or does not
correspond in shade to the wool, add some more of the dye-stuffs used
for dyeing the cotton, without, however, raising the temperature.
Prolonged boiling is necessary only very rarely, and generally only if
the goods to be dyed are difficult to penetrate or contain qualities
of wool which only with difficulty take up the dye-stuff. In such
cases, in making up the bath, dye-stuffs are to be selected some of
which go only on the wool and others which go only on the cotton
(those belonging to the second group).

The goods can then be boiled for some time, and perfect penetration
and level shades will result. If the wool takes up the dye-stuff
easily (as is frequently the case with goods manufactured from shoddy)
and are therefore dyed too dark a shade, then dye-stuffs have to be
used which principally dye the cotton, and a too high temperature is
to be avoided. In such cases it is advisable to diminish the affinity
of the wool by the addition of one-fifth of the original quantity of
Glauber's salt (about 3/8 oz. per gallon of water), and from
three-quarters to four-fifths of the dye-stuff used for the first lot.
Care has to be taken that not much of the dye-liquor is lost when
taking out the dyed goods, otherwise the quantities of Glauber's salt
and dye-stuff will have to be increased proportionately. Wooden (p. 173)
vats such as are generally used for piece dyeing have proved the
most suitable, they are heated with direct or still better with
indirect steam. The method which has proved most advantageous is to
let the steam run into a space separated from the vat by a perforated
wall into which space the required dye-stuffs and salt are placed.

The mode of working is influenced by the character of the goods, and
the following notes will be found useful by the union dyer.

Very little difficulty will be met with in dyeing such light fabrics
as Italians, cashmeres, serges and similar thin textiles lightly woven
from cotton warp and woollen weft. When deep shades (blacks, dark
blues, browns and greens) are being dyed it is not advisable to make
up the dye-bath with the whole of the dyes at once. It is much better
to add these in quantities of about one-fourth at a time at intervals
during the dyeing of the piece. It is found that the affinity of the
wool for the dyes at the boil is so much greater than is that of the
cotton that it would, if the whole of the dye were used, take up too
much of the colour and then would come up too deep in shade. Never
give a strong boil with such fabrics, but keep the bath just under the
boil which results in the wool dyeing much more nearly like to cotton.

#On Union Flannels.#--In this class of goods it is important that the
soft open feel of the goods be retained as much as possible, and for
this purpose no class of dyes offers so many advantages as the direct
colours. Only one bath being required, there is not the same amount of
manipulation needed in the dyeing operation, hence there is less risk
that the soft feel and woolly structure will be affected. As no
mordants are needed there is nothing to impart a harsh feel to the
fabrics.

#On Dress Goods, Suitings and Coatings.#--A large quantity of fabrics
for gentlemen's suits, coats and cloths in general are now made (p. 174)
from wool and cotton. Formerly the dyeing of these offered many
difficulties before the application of the direct dyes was properly
understood. Now, however the ease with which such dyes may be applied
has given considerable impetus to this class of goods, and the trade
has grown by leaps and bounds during recent years, and has been one
cause of the great cheapening of clothes which has occurred in the
same period. The dyeing of the goods with the direct colours offers
very little difficulty, and only requires that a little attention be
paid, particularly to goods in which the cotton either appears on the
surface forming a design, or is spun or twisted together with the
wool.

A good deal of shoddy is used in making the cheaper class of these
goods, and it is quite natural that such artificial wool behaves
differently from pure wool, not only with regard to its shade
resulting from mixing and working together differently dyed waste
wools, but also on account of its possessing a greater affinity for
all kinds of dye-stuff than raw wool; this in consequence of the
carbonisation and washing processes it has undergone, and also of the
mordants which the material may retain from previous processes.
Therefore (and especially in dyeing light shades on goods manufactured
of shoddy) only a small quantity of soda or borax is to be added to
the dye-bath and severe boiling is to be avoided. Wherever it is
possible goods which are to be dyed in light shades should be made
from the palest materials, and the dark qualities only used for goods
which are to be dyed in dark shades.

This rule can, of course, not always be adhered to. Quite often a
light and bright shade is to be dyed on comparatively dark material.
This cannot be achieved by simply dyeing it, the goods must be
stripped or bleached before dyeing. For this purpose either
energetically reacting, oxidising reducing agents are applied. Of the
former, bichromate of potassium is principally used. Boil the (p. 175)
goods for half to three-quarters of an hour with 3 to 5 per cent.
bichromate of potassium, 2 to 4 per cent. oxalic acid, and 3 to 5 per
cent. sulphuric acid, wash in a fresh warm bath charged with soda in
order to entirely neutralise the acid which has remained in the goods,
or else the wool would be dyed too deep a shade. In some cases
hydrosulphite has proved a useful reducing agent; it can be easily
prepared from ordinary bisulphite of soda in the following manner. Add
10 oz. ammonia (0.9 specific gravity) to a gallon of bisulphite of
soda, 32 deg. Tw.; then add slowly under a brisk stirring 10 oz.
zinc-dust, and let the entire mixture settle well, using only the
clear solution. Treat the goods from fifteen to twenty minutes in a
bath of 140 deg. F., to which first add at the boil 3/4 oz. acetic acid,
10 deg. Tw., per gallon water, and then 4 to 6 gallons clear hydrosulphite
solution per 100 gallons liquor. Then rinse very well and dye in the
usual manner; avoiding, however, too high a temperature. As on this
class of goods dark shades are mostly dyed, the goods need only very
rarely be stripped.

Bright Yellow.--Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S in a bath which contains
4 lb. Glauber's salt per 10 gallons of dye-liquor.

Good Yellow.--A very fine deep shade is dyed with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine
Gold, and 24 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow A in the same way as the last.
Here advantage is taken of the fact that while the Diamine Gold dyes
the wool better than the cotton the Diamine Yellow dyes the cotton the
deepest shade, and between the two a uniform shade of yellow is got.

Pale Gold Yellow.--Use a dye-liquor containing 4 lb. Glauber's salt
in every 10 gallons, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow A, 2 oz. Indian
Yellow G, and 3-1/2 oz. Indian Yellow R. In this recipe we use in the
two last dyes purely wool yellows, which dye the wool the same tint as
the Fast Yellow A dyes the cotton.

Bright Yellow.--Use in the same way as the last 2-1/2 lb Diamine (p. 176)
Fast Yellow B and 3 oz. Indian Yellow G.

Gold Orange.--Use as above 2 lb. Diamine orange G, 3-1/2 oz. Indian
Yellow R, and 1-1/2 oz. Orange E N Z.

Deep Orange.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange D C, 6-1/2 oz. Orange
E N Z, and 3-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow R.

Black.--Use 4-1/2 lb. Union Black S, 2 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow A,
5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, 3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and 4 lb.
Glauber's salt in 10 gallons dye-liquor.

The goods are treated at the boil in this bath for one hour, Italian
cloths have frequently if not always to pass through a finishing
process to give them lustre. This treatment, especially with blues and
blacks, has a tendency to affect the shades, reddening them. With some
dye the colour comes back on the goods becoming cold again, but with
others this is not the case. If desired the goods may be subjected
after dyeing to a treatment with alum or, better, bichromate of
potash. The goods after being dyed are rinsed and then passed into a
bath at a temperature of 140 deg. F., containing 3 lb. bichromate of
potash and 1-1/2 to 2 oz. sulphuric acid. After being chromed in this
for about half an hour they are well washed. This chroming thoroughly
fixes the colour on the cotton and it will not change while being
finished, either by crabbing, steaming or hot pressing.

Gold Brown.--Use 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Cutch, 6-1/2 oz. Diamine Fast
Yellow B, 1 oz. each Union Black, Naphthol Blue Black and Azo Red A.

Walnut Brown.--A fine shade is got with 1-1/4 lb. Union Black S,
1-1/4 lb. Diamine Brown M, 3-1/4 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 13 oz.
Indian Yellow G, and 1 oz. Naphthol Blue Black. After dyeing the goods
should be chromed with 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 oz. sulphuric
acid.

Dark Blue.--A good full shade is got with 2-1/4 lb. Union Black S,
9-1/2 oz. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, 6-1/2 oz. Alkaline Violet (p. 177)
C A, and 1/4 lb. Alkaline Blue F. Treatment in a bath of 1/2 lb. alum
and 1/2 oz. soda at 130 deg. F. will fix the colour against finishing.

Silver Grey.--A fine grey can be got from 1-3/4 oz. Diamine Black
B H, 1/2 oz. Diamine Orange B, 1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and
1/2 oz. Formyl Violet.

Navy Blue.--Use 1-1/4 lb. Union Black S, 3 lb. Diamine Black B H,
1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, 1/2 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and
2-1/2 oz. Alkaline Blue B.

Red Plum.--Use a dye-bath containing 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Violet B
and 3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B.

Dark Green.--A fine shade can be dyed in a bath containing 3 lb.
Diamine Green B and 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W.

Dark Slate.--Use 4 lb. Diamine Black H W, 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black,
and 3 oz. Azo Red A.

Sage.--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Diamine Bronze G and
1-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Dark Brown.--A fine dark shade is got from 2-1/2 lb. Diamine
Brown V, and 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Peacock Green.--Use 3-3/4 lb. Diamine Steel Blue L, 13 oz. Diamine
Fast Yellow B, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine R, and 2-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G
in a bath of 4 lb. Glauber's salt per gallon of dye-liquor.

Dark Sea Green.--Use 9 oz. Diamine Steel Blue L, 3-3/4 oz. Diamine
Fast Yellow B, 1/2 oz. Diamine Orange G, 1-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue
Black, and 3/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.

Dark Brown.--Use 1 lb. Diamine Orange B, 1 lb. Diamine Fast
Yellow B, 13-3/4 oz. Union Black S, 1 lb. Diamine Brown M, and 1/2 lb.
Indian Yellow G. Fix in an alum bath after dyeing.

Dark Stone.--Use 1/2 lb. Diamine Orange B, 3-3/4 oz. Union Black,
1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, 1-1/2 oz. Azo Red A, and 3/4 oz. Naphthol
Blue Black.

Black.--A very fine black can be got from 3-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine
Black R M, 2 lb. Union Black S, 9-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black and (p. 178)
4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, chroming after dyeing as described above.

Dark Grey.--A fine bluish, shade of grey is got from 7 oz. Diamine
Black B H, 2-1/4 oz. Diamine Orange G, 2-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black,
and 1 oz. Orange E N Z.

Dark Blue.--A fine shade is got by using 2 lb. Diamine Black B H,
1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W and 3-1/2 oz. Alkaline Blue 6 B.

Drab.--Use 3-1/2 oz. Diamine Orange B, 3/4 oz. Union Black, 1/8 oz.
Diamine Bordeaux B, 3/4 oz. Azo Red A, and 1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue
Black.

Plum.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Violet N, 9-1/2 oz. Union Black, and
1 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B.

Bright Yellow.--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Thioflavine S, 2 lb.
Naphthol Yellow S, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb, acetic acid.

Pink.--Use 1/6 oz. Diamine Rose B D, 1/4 oz. Diamine Scarlet B,
1/2 oz. Rhodamine B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

Scarlet.--A fine shade is got from 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Scarlet B,
1/2 oz. Diamine Red 5 B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.

Orange.--Use a dye-bath containing 3-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange G,
14-1/2 oz. Tropaeoline O O, and 2-3/4 oz. Orange extra.

Sky Blue.--Use 1-1/2 oz. Diamine Sky Blue and 1-1/4 oz. Alkaline
Blue B.

Bright Blue.--A fine shade similar to that formerly known as Royal
Blue is got by using 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, and 9-1/4 oz.
Alkaline Blue 6 B.

Maroon.--Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 2 lb. Diamine Violet N, and
3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B.

Green.--A fine green similar in shade to that used for
billiard-table cloth is got from 2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 2 lb.
Diamine Steel Blue L, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine R and 7-1/4 oz. Indian
Yellow G.

Gold Brown.--A fine brown is got from 3 lb. Diamine Orange B, (p. 179)
1/2 lb. Union Black, 2-1/2 oz. Diamine Brown, 3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue
Black, and 1/2 lb. Indian Yellow G.

Navy Blue.--Use 3-1/4 lb. Diamine Black B H, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine
Brilliant Blue G, and 1/2 lb. Alkaline Blue.

Fawn Drab.--A fine shade is got by dyeing in a bath containing
6-3/4 oz. Diamine Orange B, 1-3/4 lb. Union Black, 1/4 oz. Naphthol
Blue Black, 1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, and 1 oz. Azo Red A.

In all these colours the dye-baths contain Glauber's salt at the rate
of 4 lb. per 10 gallons.

Dark Brown.--2-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange B, 13 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 1-3/4 lb. Union Black, and 3-1/2 oz.
Naphthol Black.

Drab.--1-3/4 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow R, 3-1/4 oz. Diamine
Bordeaux B, 2-1/2 oz. Union Black, 1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and
1-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.

Dark Blue.--Use in the dye-bath 4-1/4 lb. Diamine Dark Blue B,
1-1/2 lb. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, 3/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and
5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Blue Black.--Use 3-1/4 lb. Union Black S, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black
B M, 6-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and 1/4 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B.

Dark Walnut.--2-3/4 lb. Diamine Brown M, 1-1/2 lb. Union Black S,
and 11-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.

Peacock Green.--Use in the dye-bath 3-1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W,
5-1/6 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 1-1/2 lb. Thiocarmine R, and
1-1/6 oz. Indian Yellow G.

Slate Blue.--Use in the dye-bath 6-1/2 oz. Diamine Catechine B,
4-3/4 oz. Diamine Orange B, 2-1/2 oz. Union Black, 2-3/4 oz. Orange
E N Z, and 1-3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Dark Sage.--A good shade is dyed with 1 lb. Diamine Orange B,
6-1/2 oz. Union Black, 1-3/4 oz. Diamine Brown M, 3-1/4 oz. Azo Red A,
and 2-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Navy Blue.--Use 2 lb. Diamine Dark Blue B, 1-1/4 lb. Lanacyl (p. 180)
Violet B, and 7 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Bronze Green.--A good shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine Orange B,
5 oz. Diamine Brown N, 3/4 lb. Union Black S, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G,
and 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Black.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M and 1-1/2 lb.
Naphthylamine Black 6 B. Another recipe, 2-1/4 lb. Oxydiamine Black
B M, 1 lb. Diamine Brown M, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, and 2 oz. Naphthol
Blue Black.

Dark Brown.--Use 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M, 15-1/2 oz. Diamine
Brown M, 1-3/4 lb. Indian Yellow G, and 2-3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.
Another combination, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M, 1-1/2 lb. Orange
E N Z, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G, and 5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Scarlet.--3 lb. Benzopurpurine 4 B, 3/4 oz. Ponceau 3 R B, and
1/2 lb. Curcumine S.

Crimson.--1/2 lb. Congo Corinth G, 2 lb. Benzopurpurine 10 B, and
1/2 lb. Curcumine S.

Bright Blue.--2 lb. Chicago Blue 6 B, 3 oz. Alkali Blue 6 B,
1-1/2 oz. Zambesi Blue R X. After dyeing, rinse and develop in a bath
of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 10 gallons water, then rinse well.

Dark Blue.--2-1/2 lb. Columbia Fast Blue 2 G, 3 oz. Sulphon
Azurine D, 3 oz. Alkali Blue 6 B. After dyeing, rinse and develop in a
bath of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 20 gallons of water.

Orange.--9 oz. Congo Brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O, and
1-1/2 oz. Mandarine G.

Dark Green.--2 lb. Columbia Green, 1/2 lb. Sulphon Azurine D,
1/2 lb. Zambesi Blue B X, 1-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.

Black.--4 lb. Columbia Black F B, and 2 lb. Wool Black 6 B.

Pale Sage Green.--5 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 lb. Chrysophenine G,
and 1-1/2 lb. Curcumine S.

Slate.--1/2 lb. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Zambesi Blue R X, (p. 181)
1/2 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O, and 1-1/2 oz. Acid Violet 6 B.

Dark Grey.--1 lb. Columbia Black F B, 3 oz. Zambesi Black B, and
3/4 oz. Sulphon Azurine D.

Drab.--1-1/2 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1/4 oz.
Curcumine extra, and 3 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.

Brown.--5 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange T A, and 2 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.

Nut Brown.--3/4 lb. Congo Brown G, 1/4 lb. Chicago Blue R W, and
3/4 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.

Dark Brown.--1 lb. Congo Brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Benzopurpurine 4 B,
1-1/2 lb. Zambesi Black F, and 1/2 lb. Wool Black 6 B.

Stone.--1 oz. Zambesi Black D, 1/4 oz. Mandarine G, 1/4 oz.
Curcumine extra, and 1-1/4 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.

Slate Green.--3 oz. Zambesi Black D, 1-1/2 oz. Guinea Green B.

Sage Brown.--1/2 lb. Zambesi Black D, 1-1/2 oz. Mandarine G extra,
3 oz. Curcumine extra, 3 oz. Acid Violet 6 B, 6 oz. Mikado Orange
4 R O, and 4-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.

Cornflower Blue.--3 oz. Chicago Blue 4 R, 1/4 lb. Zambesi Blue R X,
1/4 lb. Acid Violet 6 B, and 3/4 oz. Zambesi Brown G.

Dark Brown.--1-1/2 lb. Brilliant Orange G, 1/2 lb. Orange T A, 1 lb.
Columbia Black F B, and 1/4 lb. Wool Black 6 B.

Dark Blue.--2 lb. Chicago Blue R W, 1 lb. Zambesi Blue R X, 1/2 lb.
Columbia Black F B, 10 oz. Guinea Green B, and 1/2 lb. Guinea Violet
4 B.

The Janus dyes may be used for the dyeing of half wool union fabrics.
The best plan of working is to prepare a bath with 5 lb. of sulphate
of zinc. In this the goods are worked at the boil for five minutes,
then there is added the dyes (previously dissolved in water), and the
working continued for a quarter of an hour; then there is added 20 lb.
Glauber's salt and the working at the boil continued for one hour, (p. 182)
at the end of which time the dye-bath will be fairly well exhausted of
colour. The goods are now taken out and put into a fixing bath of
sumac or tannin, in which they are treated for fifteen minutes. To
this same bath there is next added tartar emetic and 1 lb. sulphuric
acid, and the working continued for a quarter of an hour; then the
bath is heated to 160 deg. F., when the goods are lifted, rinsed and
dried. In the recipes the quantities of dyes, sumac or tannin, and
tartar emetic only are given, the other ingredients and processes are
the same in all.

Dark Blue.--2-1/4 lb. Janus Dark Blue B, and 1/2 lb. Janus Green B,
in the dye-bath; 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing bath.

Blue Black.--3-1/2 lb Janus Black I and 1/3 lb. Janus Black I I in
the dye-bath, and 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing bath.

Dark Brown.--2-1/2 lb. Janus Brown B, 1 lb. Janus Black I, 3-1/2 oz.
Janus Yellow G, and 5 oz. Janus Red B in the dye-bath, with 16 lb.
sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing bath.

Drab.--1-1/2 oz. Janus Yellow R, 1/4 oz. Janus Red B, 1 oz. Janus
Blue R, and 1/4 oz. Janus Grey B B, in the dye-bath, and 4 lb. sumac
extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

Grey.--5 oz. Janus Blue R, 3-1/4 oz. Janus Grey B, 1-1/2 oz. Janus
Yellow R, and 1/4 oz. Janus Red B in the dye-bath, with 4 lb. sumac
extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

Nut Brown.--1 lb. Janus Brown R, 8 oz. Janus Yellow R, and 1-1/2 oz.
Janus Blue B in the dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar
emetic in the fixing-bath.

Walnut Brown.--3 lb. Janus Brown B, 1 lb. Janus Red B, 1 lb. Janus
Yellow R, and 1-1/4 oz. Janus Green B in the dye-bath, with 8 lb.
sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

Crimson.--2-1/2 lb. Janus Red B, and 8 oz. Janus Claret Red B (p. 183)
in the dye-bath, with 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in
the fixing-bath.

Dark Green.--1-1/2 lb. Janus Green B, 1 lb. Janus Yellow R, and
8 oz. Janus Grey B in the dye-bath, with 4 lb. sumac extract and
1-1/4 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.

Chestnut Brown.--1 lb. Janus Brown R and 1 lb. Janus Yellow R in the
dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the
fixing-bath.

Before the introduction of the direct dyes the method usually
followed, and indeed is now to a great extent, is that known as
Cross-dyeing. The goods were woven with dyed cotton threads of the
required shade and undyed woollen threads; after weaving and cleansing
the woollen part of the fabric was dyed with acid dyes such as Acid
Magenta, Scarlet R, Acid Yellow, etc. In such methods care has to be
taken that the dyes used for dyeing the cotton are such as stand
acids, a by no means easy condition to fulfil at one time. Many of the
direct dyes are fast to acids and therefore lend themselves more or
less readily to cross-dyeing. For details of the dyes for cotton
reference may be made to the sections on dyeing with the direct
colours in the companion volume to this book on Dyeing of Cotton
Fabrics.

#Shot Effects.#--A pleasing kind of textile fabric which is now made and
is a great favourite for ladies' dress goods is where the cotton of a
mixed fabric is thrown up to form a figured design. It is possible to
dye the two fibres in different colours and so produce a variety of
shot effects. These latter are so endless that it is impossible here
to enumerate all that may be produced. It will have to suffice to lay
down the lines which may be followed to the best advantage, and then
give some recipes to illustrate the remarks that have been made. The
best plan for the production of shot effects upon union fabrics is to
take advantage of the property of certain acid dyes which dye only (p. 184)
the wool in an acid bath and of many of the direct colours which will
only dye the cotton in an alkaline bath. The process, working on these
lines, becomes as follows: The wool is first dyed in an acid bath with
the addition of Glauber's salt and bisulphate of soda or sulphuric
acid, the goods are then washed with water containing a little ammonia
to free them from the acid and afterwards dyed with the direct colour
in an alkaline bath.

Fancy or the mode shades are obtained by combining suitable
dye-stuffs.

If the cotton is to be dyed in light shades it is advantageous to dye
on the liquor at 65 deg. to 80 deg. F., with the addition of 3-1/4 oz.
Glauber's salt, and from 20 to 40 grains borax per gallon water. The
addition of an alkali is advisable in order to neutralise slight
quantities of acid which may have remained in the wool, and to prevent
the dye-stuff from dyeing the cotton too deep a shade.

Very light shades can also be done on the padding machine. The
dye-stuffs of Group (2), which have been previously enumerated, do not
stain the wool at all or only very slightly and are therefore the most
suitable. Less bright effects can be produced by simply dyeing the
goods in one bath. The wool is first dyed at the boil with the wool
dye-stuff in a neutral bath, the steam is then shut off and the cotton
dyed by adding the cotton dye-stuff to the bath and dyeing without
again heating. By passing the goods through cold water to which some
sulphuric or acetic acid is added the brightness of most effects is
greatly increased.

Gold and Green.--First bath, 1 lb. Cyanole extra, 7-1/4 oz. Acid
Green, 1-1/2 oz. Orange G G, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda; work at
the boil for one hour, then lift and rinse well. Second bath, 4 lb.
Diamine Orange G and 15 lb. Glauber's salt; work in the cold or at a
lukewarm heat. Third bath at 120 deg. F., 4 oz. Chrysoidine and 1/4 oz.
Safranine.

Black and Blue.--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol Black 3 B and (p. 185)
10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine Sky Blue and
13 lb. Glauber's salt. Third bath, 6-1/2 oz. New Methylene Blue N;
work as in the last recipe.

Green and Claret.--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol Red C and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 1-1/4 lb.
Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Gold Brown and Blue.--First bath, 2-1/2 oz. Orange E N Z, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange G G, 1/4 oz. Cyanole extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.
Second bath, 14 oz. Diamine Sky Blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Dark Brown and Blue.--First bath, 1/2 lb. Orange G G, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange E N Z, 1-1/2 oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.
Second bath, 12 oz. Diamine Sky Blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Black and Green Blue.--First bath, 3 lb. Orange G G, 1 lb. Brilliant
cochineal 4 R, 1 lb. Fast Acid Green B N, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.
Second bath, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 3-1/4 lb. Thioflavine S,
and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

We may here note that in all the above recipes the second bath (for
dyeing the cotton) should be used cold or at a lukewarm heat, and as
strong as possible. It is not completely exhausted of colour, only
about one-half going on the fibre. If kept as a standing bath this
feature should be borne in mind and less dye-stuff used in the dyeing
of the second and following lots of goods.

Blue and Gold Yellow.--3 lb. Diamine Orange G, 13 oz. Naphthol
Blue G, 14-1/2 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt;
work at just under the boil.

Brown and Blue.---1 lb. Diamine Steel Blue L, 9-1/2 oz. Diamine Sky
Blue, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G, 1-3/4 oz. Naphthol
Blue Black and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Work at 170 deg. to 180 deg. F.

In these two last recipes only one bath is used, all the dyes (p. 186)
being added at once. This is possible if care be taken that dye-stuffs
are used which will dye wool and not cotton from neutral baths and
dyes which dye cotton better than wool. The temperature should also be
kept below the boil and carefully regulated as the operation proceeds
and the results begin to show themselves.

Grey and Orange.--First bath, 3 oz. Orange extra, 1-1/4 lb. Cyanole
extra, 11 lb. Azo Red A, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath,
5 oz. Diamine Orange D C and 3 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B.

Green and Red.--First bath, 2 lb. Croceine A Z and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt. Second bath, 1 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S,
and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Brown and Violet.--First bath, 3/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 lb. Cyanole
extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 5 oz. Diamine
Brilliant Blue G and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Black and Yellow.--First bath, 7 lb. Naphthol Black B, 1/2 lb. Fast
Yellow S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3 lb. Diamine
Fast Yellow A and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Black and Pink.--Black as above. Pink with Diamine Rose B D (see
above).

Green and Buff.--First bath, 1/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 oz. Fast
Yellow S and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine
Sky Blue F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.

Orange and Violet.--First bath, 9 oz. Orange extra and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine Violet N and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt.

Black and Blue.--First bath, Naphthol Black, as given above. Second
bath, Diamine Sky Blue, as given above.

Black and Yellow.--Add first 1 lb. Wool Black 6 B and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, then when the wool has been dyed add 2 lb. Curcumine S
to dye the cotton in the same bath.

Green and Red.--Dye the wool by using 3 lb. Guinea Green B, (p. 187)
1/4 lb. Curcumine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then add to
the bath 3/4 lb. Erika B N and 3/4 lb. Congo Corinth G.

Orange and Blue.--Dye the wool first with 1-1/4 lb. Mandarine G,
2 oz. Wool Black 6 B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then the cotton with
2 lb. Columbia Blue G.

Blue and Orange.--Dye the wool first with 3/4 lb. Guinea Violet B,
3/4 lb. Guinea Green B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then dye the cotton
with 2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.

Green and Orange.--Dye the wool with 3 lb. Guinea Green B, 1/4 lb.
Curcumine extra and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then dye the cotton in the
same bath with 1-1/2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.





Next: Dyeing Of Gloria

Previous: Mode Colours On Wool



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