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Red Shades On Wool






The number of red shades that may be dyed (p. 100)
on wool is infinite. They range over every variety of tint of red, from
the palest blush-rose to the deepest crimson, and from the most brilliant
pink to the dullest grenat shade.

It is quite impossible here to describe the dyeing of every imaginable
shade of red, while the great variety of red dye-stuffs, both natural
and artificial, adds to the difficulty of dealing in the space at
command with all the various methods and dyes that may be used in the
dyeing of reds on wool.

The methods that may be adopted for dyeing red shades on wool are many
and various, depending not only on the particular dye-stuff used, but
often on the particular shade that is being dyed. One method, which
will yield a pale and useful tint with a particular dye-stuff, would
fail if a full shade were necessary.

The greater number of red shades are now dyed by means of the
artificial dye-stuffs, as these are much easier to dye than are the
natural dyes, and they give, on the whole, more even and brilliant
shades, while as regards fastness to milling, acids, and light they
are fully equal, and in most cases superior, to the natural dyes.

#The Direct Red Dyes.#--Of this group of red dye-stuffs, Benzopurpurine,
Titan Scarlet, Diamine Fast Red F, and Benzo Fast Red are types; many
of them have been found to be very serviceable in wool dyeing. They
may be dyed either from plain baths containing common salt or
Glauber's salt, or from baths containing common salt or Glauber's salt
and a little acetic acid.

Alkaline or soap baths do not work well as a rule, and must be avoided
in wool dyeing. Generally the dye-bath is exhausted of colour, and
full shades are easily obtained, while these reds are in general
remarkable for the evenness and uniformity of tint which can be (p. 101)
produced. The reds so dyed are, on the whole, fairly fast to soaping,
and can be used for dyeing goods that have to be milled, while their
resistance to light and air is fairly good. Benzopurpurine and Diamine
Red are more or less affected by acids, but the Titan Red and some of
the more modern reds, Diamine Brilliant Scarlet, Benzo Fast Scarlets,
are all fast to acids. The fastness to washing and light of some of
them, Benzo Fast Red, Diamine Fast Red F, Titan Red, is much increased
by adding, after the wool has been dyed, 3 per cent. of fluoride of
chromium to the dye-bath, and working a little longer.

The dyeing with these colours is done at the boil, and the goods may
be entered direct into the boiling bath without fear of uneven shades
being produced. This bath may be kept as a standing one, simply adding
as each lot is dyed the necessary quantity of dye-stuff, a little
fresh water to bring the bath up to its original volume, and a
corresponding quantity of the salt originally added. The wool can then
be entered and dyed.

In place of using salt or Glauber's salt, acetate of ammonia is an
excellent assistant for this class of dyes.

The following are some recipes for dyeing various shades of red on
wool with this class of dyes.

Scarlet.--The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Titan Scarlet C B, and
10 lb. acetate of ammonia. This gives a good bright shade of scarlet,
which is fast to acids and soaping, although not fast to light.

Scarlet.--Dye in a bath made with 3 lb. Diamine Scarlet B and 10 lb.
Glauber's salt. This yields a light shade, not so fast to acids as the
last, but equally fast to soaping and light.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Benzopurpurine 4 B, and
10 lb. Glauber's salt. This also gives a good shade of Scarlet fast to
soaping. It is turned dark blue by acids, and is not fast to (p. 102)
light. It is very largely used on underwear goods, but is not so
satisfactory for this as the Titan Scarlet C B, or Benzo Fast
Scarlet B S.

Scarlet.--The dye-bath may be made with 3 lb. Brilliant Congo G,
10 lb. Glauber's salt and 2 lb. acetate of ammonia. This gives a
satisfactory shade of scarlet.

Bright Scarlet.--The dye-bath prepared with 2 lb. Geranine G, 5 lb.
sulphate of soda, 5 lb. acetate of ammonia. Work at the boil for one
hour, then wash and dry.

Dark Crimson.--Prepare a dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Chrysophenine,
1-1/2 lb. Hessian Violet, 25 lb. salt. Heat to 150 deg. F., enter the
goods, heat to boil and dye boiling for one hour, take out, rinse and
wash.

Scarlet.--A brilliant shade of scarlet can be dyed in a bath of
3 lb. Benzo Fast Red, 1 lb. Chrysophenine, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and
2 lb. acetic acid.

Fast Red.--Dye the wool in a bath boiling, containing 1 lb. Diamine
Fast Red F, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. acetic acid, until the
bath is exhausted, then add 3 lb. fluoride of Chrome and work half an
hour longer at the boil.

Bordeaux.--Dye with 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux, and 10 lb. Glauber's
salt.

Pink.--Dye with 2 lb. Diamine Rose B D, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and
1 lb. acetic acid.

The basic red dyes are not very numerous, and comprise Magenta,
Saffranine, Acridine Reds, Acridine Scarlets, Rhoduline Reds,
Rhodamine and Neutral Beds. For successful dyeing they require a
perfectly neutral bath. This bath should contain 10 per cent. of
Glauber's salt, and is started cold and not too strong; when all the
material has been entered the steam may be turned on and the
temperature slowly raised, the material being turned over and over.
The operation is continued only until the bath has been exhausted of
colour, when it is stopped, and the wool taken out, and washed (p. 103)
and dried. The liquor in the dye-baths may be allowed to cool down,
and then it may be used for making the dye-bath for a second lot of
goods, or it may be run away. It is best not to add the dye to the
bath all at once, but in several portions as the work proceeds. The
affinity of the wool for the basic dyes is usually so strong that if
all were added to the dye-bath at the start, then the first portion of
the goods entered might take up all, or nearly all, the colour,
leaving but little for the last portion; the consequence being that
the goods are dyed of an uneven colour, deeper in some parts than
others. This defect is remedied by adding the dye in portions,
entering the goods rather quickly, working cold, or by adding a little
acetic acid and plenty of Glauber's salt. Notwithstanding all these
precautions it is quite possible for the shades to come up somewhat
uneven. These remarks are applicable not only to the basic reds but to
the whole range of basic dyes, hence this class of dye-stuffs is but
little used in the dyeing of wool.

Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Magenta, and 15 lb. Glauber's
salt, working as described above. This gives a fine crimson shade
which, however, is not fast to soaping or to light. The quantity of
dye-stuff given above should not be exceeded or the shades may come up
bronzy, this may be avoided if a trace of acetic acid is added to the
dye-bath.

Crimson.--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. of Saffranine and 15 lb. Glauber's
salt. This dyes a fine Crimson shade.

Deep Red.--Use 3 lb. Rhoduline Red and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

Scarlet.--The dye-bath is made with 1 lb. Saffranine Prima, 1 lb.
Auramine, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt. The goods are entered into the
dye-bath at about 120 deg. F., and well worked about, then the temperature
is raised slowly. When the dye-bath is exhausted the goods are lifted,
washed and dried. There are no pure basic scarlets, and the above and
similar combinations of a basic red and a basic yellow are the (p. 104)
only ways in which a scarlet can be dyed on wool with basic coal-tar
colours.

The basic colours are, in general, the hydrochlorides of some colour
base, and in the process of dyeing the acid constituent of the wool
fibre unites with the colour base, while the hydrochloric acid which
is liberated passes into the dye-bath.

The acid reds are a very large group of red dyes, of somewhat varied
chemical composition, which all have the property of dyeing from baths
containing Glauber's salt and sulphuric acid or acetic acid, the usual
proportions being 10 per cent. of the former, and 2 to 5 per cent. of
the acid. Some are best dyed from a bath containing bisulphate of
soda. The dyeing should be started cold, or at a lukewarm heat, then
steam should be turned on and the temperature raised to the boil, at
which it is maintained for an hour; this boiling serving to more
intimately fix the dye-stuff on the woollen fibre.

The Eosine reds, of which Eosine in its various brands, Rose Bengale,
Phloxine, Saffrosine and Erythrosine, are examples, are best dyed upon
wool from a bath containing Glauber's salt and a little acetic acid.
They do not require a very acid bath, hence the reason of using acetic
acid. The method of dyeing is that given above as for basic reds,
namely, enter into cold, or at most lukewarm bath, and raise the heat
slowly, continuing the work until the shade required has been
obtained. It is a good plan to start work in a neutral bath, and then
when the material has become thoroughly impregnated with the
dye-liquor to add the acetic acid. The shades obtained from these
Eosine reds are remarkable for their brilliance, but unfortunately
their fastness to light, washing, etc., is but slight, although it may
be increased by treating the dyed wool in a bath of alum or acetate of
lead.

Some of the acid reds, e.g., Acid Magenta, Acid Violet, belong (p. 105)
to the group of sulphonated basic dyes. The vast majority belong to the
group of azo dyes, which can be employed to dye from palest pinks to
the deepest crimson reds. Some dye very brilliant shades, others only
yield dull reds. Some dye shades remarkable for their fastness to all
agencies, soap, acids, alkalies, light and air; others dye shades
which may be fast to soap, but loose to acids and light. Generally
even shades are readily obtained on any kind of woollen fabric. It is
practically impossible to name all the acid reds that are known and
that may be used, but a fairly representative series of recipes will
be given.

Ponceau.--Wet out, then prepare a bath with 2 lb. Ponceau R, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Enter the wool in the cold,
bring to a boil and work to shade, wash and dry.

Crushed Strawberry.--Prepare a bath containing 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, 4 oz. Scarlet R S, 9 oz. Indigo extract, 2 oz. Orange Y, 4 oz.
sulphuric acid. Enter wool at 160 deg. F., give four turns, raise
temperature slowly to a boil, and turn to shade, lift and wash.

Scarlet.--Prepare a dye-bath with 2 lb. Azo cochineal, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, 4 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at the boil until the full
shade is obtained, then lift, wash and dry.

Terra Cotta Red.--The dye-bath is made from 2-1/2 lb. Fast Acid
Magenta B, 2-1/2 lb. Fast Yellow F Y, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 2 lb.
sulphuric acid. Work at the boil to shade.

Fast Scarlet.--Prepare a dye-bath with 3 lb. Glauber's salt,
1-1/4 lb. sulphuric acid, 2-1/2 lb. Brilliant Scarlet 4 R. Work at the
boil for one and a half hours.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Scarlet 2 R J, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The goods may be entered at
about 150 deg. F., and the temperature raised at the boil and maintained
at that heat for one hour, then the goods are lifted, rinsed and
dried.

The method given in the above recipes is that usually followed (p. 106)
with the acid colours. When closely woven or thick goods are being
dyed, where it is desired that the colour should penetrate well into
the substance of the goods, the following modification of working may
be adopted:--

The dye-bath is made up with the dye-stuff and Glauber's salt only,
and the goods are worked in this at the boil until they are thoroughly
impregnated with the dye-stuff liquor, then the acid is added in small
quantities at a time, and the dyeing is continued for one hour to fix
the colouring matter on the wool fibre. The goods may then be lifted
out, washed and dried.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Scarlet F R, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. In place of scarlet F R, the F 2 R or
F 3 R brands may be used, the latter giving the reddest shades.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Scarlet O O, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Scarlet O dyes a yellower shade of
scarlet, while scarlets O O and O O O dye slightly redder shades.

Scarlet.--The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Brilliant Ponceau 2 R,
10 lb. Glauber's salt and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. This gives a
brilliant shade of scarlet. Brilliant Ponceau G, used in the same way,
gives a much yellower tone of scarlet, the R gives a slightly yellower
tone, while the 3 and 4 R brands dye redder shades.

Bluish Red.--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Brilliant Croceine B,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Brilliant
croceine B B and the brand M dye redder shades of scarlet.

Red.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Milling Red R, 20 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 5 lb. acetic acid. This is a good bright shade, and is quite
fast to soaping and milling.

Deep Scarlet.--Dye with 3 lb. Chromotrop R, 10 lb. Glauber's (p. 107)
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. This scarlet is very fast to milling,
acid and light.

Red.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Victoria Scarlet R, 1 lb.
Victoria Rubine O, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 4 lb. sulphuric acid. A
fine deep scarlet red is obtained.

Scarlet.--Dye with 2 lb. Brilliant Orseille C, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a bright bluish shade of
scarlet.

Red.--Dye with 1 lb. Emin Red and 5 lb. bisulphate of soda.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Croceine Scarlet 3 R, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Fawn Red.--Make the dye-bath with 1-1/2 oz. Cyanole, 1-1/2 oz.
Orange extra, 2-1/2 oz. Archil Substitute N, 10 lb. Glauber's salt,
and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a nice light tint of fawn red, of
a somewhat bluish tone.

Deep Fawn Red.--A very deep shade of fawn red is dyed with 4-1/2 oz.
Cyanole, 2-1/4 lb. Orange extra, 1-1/4 lb. Archil Substitute N, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The same dye-stuffs are used
as in the last, but the result is a deeper shade, of a yellow tone.

Crushed Strawberry Red.--Use 4 oz. Chromotrop 2 R, 2 oz. Cyanine B,
1 oz. Azo yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Pale Lilac Rose.--Dye with 1 oz. Chromotrop 2 R, 1/2 oz. Cyanine B,
1/2 oz. Azo yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Fawn.--Dye with 3-1/4 oz. Chromotrop 2 R, 1-1/2 oz. Orange G,
2 oz. Cyanine B, 4 oz. Fast Acid Blue R, 10 lb. acetic acid, and
20 lb. Glauber's salt.

Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Titan Red 6 B, 20 lb. salt,
with a little acetic acid, and work at the boil. This gives a fine
shade of crimson, fast to acids and capable of standing milling very
well.

Deep Crimson.--A bright and deep crimson is dyed with 4 lb. Fast (p. 108)
Acid Magenta B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid, working
at the boil.

Pale Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Fast Acid Magenta B,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil.
Level shades are readily obtained, and the dye is fast to washing.

Deep Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a very deep shade
of crimson, of a bluish tone.

Bluish Crimson.--Use in the dye-bath 2 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Pale Bluish Crimson.--Use in the dye-bath 1 lb. Azo Fuchsine G,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a very
bright shade of pale crimson. The B brand of the Azo Fuchsines gives
slightly bluer shades than the above.

Deep Crimson.--A very solid crimson is dyed in a bath containing
3 lb. Azo Red A, 2 oz. Orange extra, 2 oz. Cyanole extra, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at the boil.

Bright Crimson.--A fine bluish crimson can be dyed on wool with
4 lb. Azo Red A, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.
Work at the boil.

Deep Crimson.--A good shade can be dyed with 6 lb. Amaranth, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, working at the boil.

Brilliant Pale Bluish Crimson.--A really brilliant shade, bordering
on a violet red, is dyed in a bath containing 1-1/2 lb. Fast Acid
Violet R, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Bluish Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Croceine Scarlet,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a good
full shade of a bluish tone and very bright.

Bluish Crimson.--Dye with 3 lb. Chromotrop 6 B, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid. This gives a fine tint, (p. 109)
very fast to acids, milling and light.

Purple.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Chromotrop 10 B, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid.

The Chromotrops are remarkable for the fulness of the shades they dye,
the brightness of their tint, and their fastness to acids, washing and
light.

Purple.--Use 4 lb. Azo Fuchsine B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

Bluish Purple.--A very dark shade of purple is dyed with 4 lb. Azo
Acid Violet 4 R, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

#Bordeaux Reds#.--These are shades that lie intermediately between the
scarlets and the crimsons. They are in general duller than the
scarlets, and have a more solid and fuller look; while they are less
blue in tone than the crimson. They can be obtained from a large
variety of dye-stuffs, and the recipes given below may be regarded as
typical examples.

Bright Bordeaux Red.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Azo Bordeaux,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil
to shade. This is a very bright shade, of a somewhat bluish tone.

Cherry Red.--Make the dye-bath with 2-1/2 lb. Fast Acid Magenta B,
2-1/2 lb. Fast Yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric
acid. This gives a fine deep shade.

Bright Cherry Red.--A very yellow shade of red, fast to milling, is
dyed by making a dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Anthracene Yellow C, 3 lb.
Diamine Fast Red F, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 5 lb. acetate of soda, and
2 lb. bisulphate of soda. Work at the boil for one hour, then lift,
add 3 lb. fluoride of chrome, re-enter the wool and work half an hour
longer; wash and dry.

Deep Bordeaux Red.--The dye-bath is made with 4 lb. Diamine Fast
Red F, 5 lb. acetate of soda, and 3 lb. bisulphate of soda. Work (p. 110)
at the boil for one hour, then lift, add to the bath 3 lb. fluoride of
chrome, re-enter the goods and work again for half an hour; lift, wash
and dry.

Bright Cherry Red.--Make a dye-bath with 4 lb. Benzo Fast Red,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one
hour, then lift, add 3 lb. fluoride of chrome, re-enter the goods and
work for half an hour longer; wash and dry.

Cherry Red.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 1-1/2 lb.
Fast Yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at
the boil for one hour.

Bluish Bordeaux Red.--For a very fast shade use 8 oz. Fast Acid
Violet R, 8 oz. Orange G, 3/4 oz. Patent Blue B, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at the boil for one hour.

Bright Bordeaux Red.--A good bright and fast shade of red is dyed
with 3-1/2 lb. Emin Red and 7 lb. bisulphate of soda. Work at the boil
for one hour, then lift, add 3 lb. fluoride of chrome, work for
three-quarters of an hour, then lift, wash and dry.

Bordeaux Red.--Use 3 lb. Titan Scarlet D, 1/4 lb. Titan Brown O, and
20 lb. salt. Work at the boil for one hour, then lift, wash and dry.

#Claret Reds.#--Claret reds are very useful shades and are great
favourites of the dress-loving public. They are dark reds of a yellow
tone, and can be dyed upon wool in a variety of ways, of which the
following recipes just indicate a few.

Claret.--Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Milling red R, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 4 lb. sulphuric acid.

Claret.--Use 4 lb. Archil Substitute N, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and
2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Claret.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Bordeaux B L, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Claret.--A deep shade is dyed with 2-1/2 lb. Victoria Scarlet R, (p. 111)
2 lb. Victoria Rubine O, 1 oz. Cyanine Scarlet R, 2 lb. Victoria
Rubine O, 1 oz. Cyanine B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric
acid.

Claret.--A fine deep shade is dyed with 2 lb. Azo Red A, 1/4 lb.
Orange extra, 1/4 lb. Cyanole, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

#Maroon Reds.#--From clarets to maroons is not a wide interval, they are
both dark shade reds, the former tending to a yellow tone, the latter
to a more bluish shade of red. A few recipes will be given to show
some of the best methods of dyeing maroons.

Maroon.--Use 6 lb. Amaranth B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid. This gives a fine bright shade.

Deep Maroon.--Make the dye-bath with 4-1/2 lb. Fast Acid
Violet 10 B, 80 lb. Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid. This
gives a fine blue shade of maroon of great depth.

Maroon.--The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Azo acid violet 4 R, 1 lb.
Fast Yellow S, 1-1/2 oz. Fast Green Bluish, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and
2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Maroon.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Acid Magenta, 1/2 lb.
Orange O, 1/2 lb. Patent Blue V, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

Deep Maroon.--Make a dye-bath with 3 lb. Azo Acid Rubine, 1-1/2 oz.
Acid Black B B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Maroon.--The dye-bath is made with 3 lb. Milling Red B, 1-1/2 oz.
Naphthol Black 4 R, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Maroon.--Make the dye-bath with 1-1/2 lb. Victoria Scarlet R,
13 oz. Victoria Rubine O, 1/2 lb. Victoria Yellow, 2 lb. Keton Blue G,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid.

Bright Red.--A good shade is dyed with 4 lb. Lanafuchsine S G, and
10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Lanafuchsine S B dyes somewhat bluer
shades.

Fast Red.--Dye with 4 lb. Milling Red B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, (p. 112)
and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Bright Scarlet.--Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant Cochineal 2 R, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Scarlet.--Dye with 3 lb. Brilliant Ponceau 4 R, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

#Pinks.#--Pink.--Use 1-1/2 oz. Erythesine D, and 5 lb. acetic acid.
These two pinks are very much alike and are very bright.

Bluish Pink.--Use 1-1/2 oz. Rose Bengale and 5 lb. acetic acid.

Pink.--Make the dye-bath with 3 oz. Azo Cochineal, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Bluish Pink.--Make the dye-bath with 3/4 to 1 oz. Fast Acid Violet R
and a little Orange G, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric
acid.

Pink.--By using 1-1/2 oz. Fast Acid Violet R, 3/4 oz. Orange G,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, a good full pink is
obtained.

Bluish Pink.--Use 2 oz. Fast Acid Violet R, 10 lb. Glauber's salt,
and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Many of the other acid reds may be used for dyeing pinks if from 2 to
4 oz. of dye-stuff be used.

Pink.--Use in the dye-bath 1-1/2 oz. Diamine Fast Red F, 5 lb.
acetate of soda, and 3 lb. bisulphate of soda.

Coral Red.--Make the dye-bath with 1/2 lb. Diamine Scarlet B, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 1 lb. acetic acid.

Dark Cherry Red.--The dye-bath is made with 2-1/2 lb. Orange G G,
1 lb. Brilliant Orseille C, 3/4 oz. Cyanole extra, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Crimson.--Use in the dye-bath 4 lb. Brilliant Orseille C,
1-1/2 oz. Cyanole extra, 3 oz. Orange G G, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and
2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Lanafuchsine S G, and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda. Work at the boil to shade.

Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 4 lb. Lanafuchsine S B, and (p. 113)
10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Work at the boil to shade.

The Lanafuchsines, of which there are three brands, S G, S B, and 6 B,
dye very good level shades of red from scarlet to crimson, which are
of good fastness to milling, acids and light.

Salmon.--Use 1/2 lb. Rhodamine B, 1/4 oz. Naphthol Yellow S, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. acetic acid.

Rose Red.--Use 1/4 lb. Lanafuchsine S B, 3 oz. Lanafuchsine S G,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 1 lb. sulphuric acid.

Salmon Red.--Use 1-1/2 oz. Lanafuchsine S G, 1/4 oz. Fast Yellow S,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 1/2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Crimson.--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Naphthol Red C, 9 oz.
Acid Magenta, 3/4 oz. Cyanole extra, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

Purple Red.--Dye with 2-1/2 lb. Naphthol Red C, 3/4 lb. Acid
Magenta, 1 oz. Cyanole extra, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

Bordeaux Red.--Dye with 4 lb. Lanafuchsine S B, 1 oz. Orange extra,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Fawn Red.--Dye with 1/4 lb. Orange G G, 3 oz. Lanafuchsine S B,
1/2 oz. Cyanole extra, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric
acid.

Salmon.--Prepare the dye-bath with 1/4 oz. Fast Acid Violet R,
1/2 oz. Orange G, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 1 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at
the boil to shade.

The mordant reds are fairly numerous, and include both natural and
artificial red dye-stuffs. The principle or property on which the
application of this group of dye-stuffs to the dyeing of textile
fabrics depends is that they are of an acid character and combine with
metallic oxides, like those of iron, aluminium, or chromium to form
insoluble coloured bodies, or colour lakes as they are called. The
shade or tint of these colour lakes depends, firstly, upon the (p. 114)
dye-stuff, and, secondly, upon the metallic oxide. Thus Alizarine with
alumina gives a scarlet, with chrome a dark red, and with iron a dull
violet. Alumina and chrome are the metallic mordants most commonly
used in the dyeing of reds; sometimes tin is used, but never iron.

The coal-tar colour makers have placed at the service of dyers a great
variety of mordant dyes, which may be classified somewhat roughly into
groups, according to their chemical composition. The first group is
called phenolic colours. These contain the group, or radical OH,
hydroxyl, once or oftener. It is to the presence of this group that
they owe their acid character and the property of combination with
metallic oxides. To this group of dye-stuffs belong such dyes as
Alizarine, Alizarine Cyanine, Anthragallol, Gambine, Coerulein, and
some others. The natural red dye-stuffs, Cochineal, Brazil-wood,
madder, etc., probably belong to this class.

None of these are essentially dyes of themselves, and used alone will
not dye any fibre, it is only when they are brought into combination
with the mordant that they will dye the wool fibre.

The next group may be called hydroxy-azo dyes, and are quite of modern
introduction. They are azo dyes, one of whose constituents is a body
like salicylic acid, amido-benzoic acid, dihydroxy-naphthalene-sulpho
acid, which contain the group OH, hydroxyl with carboxyl COOH. The
first group imparts phenolic characters, while the second gives true
acid properties, and both of these acting together cause the dyes to
be able to form colour lakes with metallic oxides. There is one point
of difference between the two groups of dyes, the phenolic dyes are as
a rule not dyes of themselves, some of them are practically free from
colour, and it is only when brought into combination with the metallic
oxide or mordant that they form a colour and dye a fibre. On the (p. 115)
other hand the azo mordants are in general colouring matters, and can
be used to dye wool without the aid of a mordant, the latter only
serving to make the colour faster to light, acids, milling, etc., and
it often has no material effect on the shade or tone of colour being
dyed. Alizarine Yellow G G, Gambine Yellow, Anthracene Yellow, Chrome
Violet, are examples of such dyes.

There are, however, some dyes (such as the Chromotrops, Azofuchsine,
Anthracene Acid Browns, etc.) on which the mordant has a marked
effect.

The methods adopted in practice for the application of this class of
dyes are many and varied. The mordants used are alum, alumina
sulphate, acetate of chrome, chrome alum, fluoride of chrome, ferrous
sulphate and tin chloride, while, in addition, along with these true
mordanting materials, assistant mordants are used, such as argol,
tartar, tartaric acid, lactic acid, lignorosine, oxalic acid and
sulphuric acid.

The mordanting may be done either before or after the dyeing, the
first plan being that commonly adopted with the phenolic colours,
while the second method may be used and is the best to use with
azo-mordant dyes. Sometimes the mordanting and dyeing may be done in
one bath, but this method is one which leads to a loss of colouring
matter and often to the production of colours which are loose to
rubbing, and cannot, therefore, be recommended.

#Mordanting.#--This operation is carried out in the same way in all
cases. The goods are entered into the bath at a temperature of about
150 deg. F. The heat is raised to the boil, and is then maintained for
one and a half hours, after which the mordanted wool is lifted and well
rinsed, when it is ready for the dye-bath. As mordanting materials
bichromate of potash and fluoride of chrome are chiefly used when
chrome mordants are required, sometimes chrome alum. With these (p. 116)
are used sulphuric acid, oxalic acid, cream of tartar or argol, lactic
acid, etc.

Which of these are used depends entirely on the results which are to
be got and the dye-stuff to be used, more particularly is this the
case when bichromate of potash is the mordanting material. When
sulphuric acid is used as the assistant along with the bichrome, then
there is formed on the wool fibre a deposit of chromic acid and
chromium oxide, and this exerts an oxidising effect on the colouring
matter or dye-stuff, which in some cases, as the Alizarine Blue,
Alizarine Yellow, etc., leads to a destructive effect, and, therefore,
the production of weak shades, so that it is not possible always to
use an oxidising mordant. When tartar, argol, oxalic acid, lactic
acids and other assistants of an organic nature are used, then a
different effect is obtained, the bichromate is completely decomposed,
and a deposit of chromium oxide formed on the wool. This does not
exert any action on the colouring matter, and hence this mordant is
known as the non-oxidising mordant. It may be pointed out that when
wool is mordanted with potassium or sodium bichromate and sulphuric
acid (oxidising mordant) it has a deep yellow colour, while when
mordanted with bichromate or other chrome salt, and the organic
assistants enumerated above (non-oxidising mordant), it has a green
colour, and one sign of a well-mordanted wool is when it has a good
bright tone free from yellowness.

Of the organic assistants tartar is undoubtedly the best in general
use, and, although slow in its action, leaves a good deposit of oxide
of chrome on the wool in a suitable condition to develop the best
results on dyeing. Argols are only an impure tartar. They can only be
used when dark shades are to be dyed. Oxalic acid does not work as
well as tartar, and there is not so much chrome oxide deposited on the
wool, while there is a slight tendency for a small proportion of this
to be in the form of chromic acid. Of late years lactic acid and (p. 117)
lignorosine have been added to the list of assistant mordants; both
these give excellent results, they lead to a more complete and more
uniform decomposition of the bichromate, and therefore the mordanting
baths are more completely exhausted, so that rather less bichromate is
required; the shades which are obtained are in general fuller and
brighter. Examples of the use of these assistants will be found among
the recipes given below.

With fluoride of chrome either oxalic acid or tartar is used, and a
deposit of chromium oxide is formed on the wool, the general effect
being the same as when bichromate of potash is used with oxalic acid
or tartar.

Alumina is applied either in the form of alum or of sulphate of
alumina, argol or tartar being used as the assistant, oxide of alumina
being deposited on the fibre.

When ferrous sulphate (copperas) is used then tartar is almost
invariably used as the assistant mordant, oxalic acid only rarely.

The dyeing with mordant dyes must be done in a special way and with
great care, if uniform, level shades and fast colours are to be
obtained.

The dye-bath must be started cold, and the wool be entered and worked
for twenty to thirty minutes, the object being to cause the dye-stuffs
to penetrate well into the substance of the fibre, then the
temperature is slowly raised to the boil, not less than three-quarters
of an hour being taken in doing so; the temperature is maintained at
the boil for fully one and a half hours longer. During the boiling
operation the mordant and dye-stuff combine together, and form the
characteristic colour lake, and the boiling fixes this firmly on to
the wool.

The water used plays a very important part. If too hard in character,
the lime it contains shows a tendency to combine with the (p. 118)
dye-stuff and form a colour lake, which is deposited in a loose form
on the wool or in the bath, tending to make the shades dull and loose
to rubbing. This defect can be remedied by adding a little acetic acid
to the dye-bath, say about 3 lb. to 100 gallons of the water. It
combines with and neutralises the influence of the lime, in so far as
the formation of a loose colour lake is concerned; still the lime does
unite with the dye-stuff, but the combination is formed more slowly,
and in or on the wool fibre so that it is fast.

By working in the manner laid down above very fast shades can be dyed
on wool with mordant dyes, and the following recipes will give the
other details as to tints, shades, quantities, etc., not noted above.

Claret.--Mordant, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. tartar; dye,
8 lb. Alizarine Claret R.

Fawn.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 1-1/2 lb. tartar;
dye, 3 lb. Alizarine Orange N.

Maroon.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2-1/2 lb. tartar;
dye, 15 lb. Alizarine Orange N.

Deep Crimson.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2-1/2 lb.
tartar; dye, 8 lb. Alizarine Red 1 W S.

Lilac Rose.--Mordant, 1-1/2 lb. bichromate of potash and 1-1/2 lb.
tartar; dye, 1 lb. Alizarine Red 1 W S.

Crushed Strawberry Tint.--Mordant, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and
1-1/2 lb. tartar; dye, 3 lb. Alizarine Red 2 W S.

Deep Claret.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2-1/2 lb.
tartar; dye, 5 lb. Alizarine Red 1 W S.

Bright Fawn Red.--Mordant, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 1-1/2 lb.
tartar; dye, 1 lb. Alizarine Red 5 W S.

Scarlet.--Mordant, 10 lb. alum and 6 lb. tartar; dye, 4 lb.
Alizarine Red 5 W S.

Rose.--Mordant, 6 lb. alum and 4 lb. tartar; dye, 1 lb. Alizarine
Red 1 W S.

Deep Scarlet.--Mordant, 10 lb. alum and 6 lb. tartar; dye, (p. 119)
4 lb. Alizarine Red 1 W S.

Deep Maroon.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 1 lb.
sulphuric acid; dye, 5 lb. Alizarine Red 3 W S.

Bright Maroon.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb.
tartar; dye, 5 lb. Alizarine Red S W, 10 lb. Mordant Yellow.

Deep Fawn Red.--Mordant, 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2-1/2 lb.
tartar; dye, 10 lb. Alizarine Orange W and 1 lb. Mordant Yellow.

These typical recipes are here given to show what tints may be
obtained from the alizarine and the quantity of dye-stuffs required.
By using other proportions of dye-stuffs than those given a variety of
other tints may be dyed.

The method of working described above is applicable to other mordant
dyeing colours besides the alizarine reds, such as Alizarine Orange,
Alizarine Blue, Anthracene Brown, Alizarine Cyanine, Galloflavine,
Gambine, Chrome Violet, etc. It will therefore not be required to
repeat this description of the process when the use of mordant colours
for producing other colours, such as blues, navies, drabs, browns,
etc., is dealt with.

Although the shades dyed with the alizarines and allied colouring
matters are lacking in the brilliance characteristic of the azo
scarlets, yet they have the very great advantage of being quite fast
to washing, acids and light.

There is another method of using those alizarine reds that are sold in
the form of powder, and which are distinguished by the letter S. They
are of some value in dyeing heavy woollen cloths, and the method is
indicated in the two recipes which follow:--

Brilliant Scarlet.--Prepare a dye-bath with 20 lb. Glauber's salt
and 4 lb. Alizarine Red 1 W S, boil the wool in this for
three-quarters of an hour; then lift, add to the same bath 4 lb. (p. 120)
sulphuric acid, again work at the boil for three-quarters of an hour;
then lift, add 10 lb. alum, re-enter the goods, and work
three-quarters of an hour longer; then lift, wash and dry.

Claret.--Prepare a bath with 20 lb. Glauber's salt and 4 lb.
Alizarine Red 1 W S, boil for three-quarters of an hour; then lift,
add 4 lb. sulphuric acid, re-enter the wool, boil for three-quarters
of an hour; then lift, add 3 lb. bichromate of potash, re-enter the
wool, and boil for three-quarters of an hour longer; then lift, wash
and dry.

Bluish Red.--Mordant, 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. lactic
acid; dye, 2 lb. Alizarine Red S. In this recipe there is used lactic
acid as the assistant, and a very fine shade results.

Red.--Mordant, 3 lb. lignorosine, 2 lb. bichromate of soda and 1 lb.
sulphuric acid; dye with 12 lb. Alizarine Orange 2 G.

Dark Bordeaux Red.--Mordant, 3 lb. lignorosine, 3 lb. bichromate of

soda and 1-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid; dye, 12 lb. Alizarine S X.

Dark Red.--Mordant, 3 lb. lignorosine, 2-1/2 lb. bichromate of soda
and 1-1/4 lb. sulphuric acid; dye, 6 lb. Alizarine Orange 2 G and
4 lb. Alizarine S X.

Lignorosine used as the assistant mordant in the above recipes works
very well, and gives bright shades.

Fast Bordeaux.--Prepare a bath with 4 lb. Chromogene I, 1-1/2 lb.
Alizarine Red 1 W S, 1 lb. Alizarine Red 5 W S, 1/2 lb. Fast Acid
Violet R, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 3 lb. sulphuric acid. Work at the
boil for one hour, then lift; add to the same bath 3 lb. bichromate of
potash and 1-1/2 lb. sulphuric acid. Re-enter the goods and work to
shade, then lift, wash and dry.

Terra Cotta.--Make a dye-bath of 30 lb. Fustic, 8 lb. Turmeric,
30 lb. Sanders and 10 lb. Sumac. Boil the goods in this for one (p. 121)
hour, then add 3 lb. sulphate of copper, previously dissolved in
water, boil for one hour; cool, sadden with Copperas, using about
3-1/2 lb. or less if required; then rinse and dry.

Another method is to mordant the goods at a boil for one and a half
hours in 2 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 lb. tartar. Drain and wash.
Dye in a fresh bath with 8 lb. sanders and 10 lb. fustic; afterwards
sadden with 1/4 lb. copperas; allow to stand one hour; wash and dry.





Next: Orange Shades On Wool

Previous: The Principles And Practice Of Wool Dyeing



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