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Woolen And Worsted Fabrics

=Albatross.= A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted filling; of
open texture and fancy weaves.

=Alpaca.= A thin fabric of close texture made from the fibers of an
animal of the llama species; mixed with silk or with cotton. It is
usually woven with cotton warp and mohair filling. Imitations of all
cotton are manufactured and sold under this name.

=Corded Alpaca.= Corded weave, lengthwise of the piece, cotton warp
alpaca filling; one of the first products of the American loom.

=Angora.= The fiber of this goat is commercially known as mohair. The
skins are largely used in the making of children's muffs, for the
scalps of dolls, and for trimming coats and capes. Carriage robes also
claim a good share of the skins; the hair, being nearly one foot in
length, makes them beautiful and serviceable. The fiber enters largely
into that class of goods known as Astrakhan, Crepons, Plushes,
Brilliantines, Zibelines, fine Cashmeres, and many other fabrics
usually sold as all wool or worsted, according to the mode of
preparing the stock before spinning into yarn. It is found in the
finest of silk and worsted fabrics for ladies' wear, also in linings,
mittens, and fine cloaking and overcoating. It is noted especially for
its water repelling qualities, its beauty, and high luster; and not so
much for its warmth-retaining properties, for which wool stands

=Astrakhan.= A fabric manufactured from Astrakhan fiber; of a curly,
wavy surface applied to a curly faced cloth resembling Astrakhan

=Bandanna.= From the Indian bandanna, to bind or tie. In dyeing, the
cloth is tied in knots when dipped, and thus has a clouded effect.

=Beaver.= A heavy cloth manufactured of fine wool, with a finish on
the surface to resemble the fur of the animal by that name.

=Fur Beaver.= Similar in many respects to Beaver, but having on its
surface a long, dense nap, in imitation of the fur of the Beaver. Used
for overcoats, cloaks, and capes.

=Bedford Cord.= A fine woolen fabric, with fine recesses running with
the piece, and extensively used for ladies' dress goods. An all wool
cloth of close texture for gentlemen's clothing. The recesses may also
be made with fine cotton yarn hidden in the wool filling.

=Beige.= Cloth of undyed or natural wool. The name is the French word
for "natural."

=Bindings.= A species of narrow fabric of silk, worsted or cotton, for
binding the edges of garments, the bottom of dress skirts, etc.

=Bombazine.= A twilled fabric of which the warp is silk and the
filling is worsted.

=Bottany.= A term applied to worsted yarns made from bottany wool. It
is considered the finest of all worsted yarns, and is used for fine
fabrics of close texture.

=Boucle.= Curled hair or wool woven in any cloth in such a way as to
show the curl makes boucle. The word is French for curl.

=Broadcloth.= Broadcloth is a soft, closely woven material with a
satin finish. The best qualities are called satin broadcloth.

The origin of broadcloth dates back to early times, the first
historical mention of it being made in 1641. In America, among the
first products manufactured by the colonial woolen mills were black
and colored broadcloths, and these (with satinets) formed the
distinctive character of American woolen fabrics at that time. They
were honestly made of pure, fine-fibered Saxony wool, and sold as high
as $6.50 per yard.

The warp and filling are made of carded wool so that the web (cloth)
will shrink or full evenly. The stock is generally dyed in the raw
state when used for men's wear. When taken from the loom it does not
have the smooth, lustrous appearance which is its distinctive feature.
It is rough and dull colored, with the threads showing plainly. To
improve its appearance it is first subjected to the action of the
fulling mill, with the result that the fibers of the warp and weft
become entangled to such an extent that the cloth never unravels. Then
the cloth is slightly napped and sheared down close, in order to
produce a smooth, even surface. Next it is successively wetted,
steamed, calendered, and hot pressed for the purpose of bringing out
the luster. It is commonly twill woven, but is sometimes plain,
finished with a slightly napped and lustrous face. It must have a
bright, beaver finish, and be close and felty in the weave.

The broadcloth used for women's clothing is of a lighter weight and is
generally piece dyed. It is used for ladies' suits, coats, and
gentlemen's evening dress suits, frock coats, and tuxedos. It is
expensive; prices range from $1.75 to $3.50 per yard in ladies'
broadcloth, and higher for men. The price depends on the quality of
wool used, and uniformity of the nap and perfection of the finish.

=Bunting.= A plain even thread weave of mohair, wool, or worsted, used
mostly for making flags. The name is from German, bunt, meaning
variegated or gay colored.

=Caniche.= A name given to curled wool fabric showing the effect of
the coat of the caniche, a French dog.

=Cashmere.= A cloth made from the hair of the Cashmere goat. The face
of the fabric is twilled, the twills being uneven and irregular
because of the unevenness of the yarn. Cashmere yarn was first hand
spun. The goats are grown for their wool in the vale of Cashmere in
the Himalaya Mountains.

=All Wool Cashmere.= As no material by this name exists there can be
no definition. When the term is used in defining a fabric, it is a
delusion and a snare.

=Cashmere Double.= A cloth having Cashmere twill on one side or face
and poplin cord on the reverse.

=Cassimere.= The name is a variation of Cashmere. Cassimere, when
properly made, is of Cashmere wool. Usually a twill weave.

=Castor.= Same as beaver, of a light weight.

=Challis.= (Also spelled challie.) A name given to a superior dress
fabric of silk and wool first manufactured at Norwich, England, in
1832. In texture the original material was soft, thin, fine, and
finished without gloss. When first introduced it ranked among the best
and most elegant silk and wool textures manufactured. It was composed
of fine materials, and instead of giving it a glossy surface, such as
is usually produced from silk and fine wool, the object was to make it
without luster. The name is now applied to an extremely light weight
summer dress fabric, composed of either cotton or wool, or a mixture
of these fabrics. In structure it is both plain woven and figured, the
ornamental patterns being produced either in the loom or yarn, dyed or
printed. It is not sized. All wool challis does not differ essentially
from the old-fashioned muslin delaine. Most challis patterns are
copied from the French silks, and this accounts in part for their
tasteful designs and artistic effects. French challis is a material
similar to the above, though usually characterized by a more glossy

=Cheviot.= A descriptive term of somewhat loose application, being
used indiscriminately of late years to denote almost any sort of stout
woolen cloth finished with a rough and shaggy surface. Originally the
fabric known as cheviot was woven in England, from the strong, coarse
wool of the Cheviot sheep, whence the name.

It is at present a worsted or woolen fabric made of cheviot or "pulled
wool," slightly felted, with a short even nap on the surface and a
supple feel. Worsted cheviots, in plain colorings or of fancy effects,
are manufactured from combed yarn. Woolen cheviots are made from
carded yarn. The greater portion of this class of goods in carded
yarns contains little or no new wool in its make-up. Shoddy, mungo,
and a liberal mixture of cotton to hold it together, blended in the
many colorings, help to cover the deception. Prices range from 50
cents to $3.00. The material is plain or twill woven, and has many of
the qualities of serge.

The distinguishing feature of cheviot, whatever the grade of cloth, is
the finish, of which there are two kinds. One is known as the "rough"
finish, and the other as the "close" finish. Real cheviot is a
rough-finished fabric, composed of a strong, coarse wool and fulled to
a considerable degree. The process of finishing cheviot is simple, and
practically the same methods are followed for both the "rough" and the
"close" styles. On leaving the loom the cloth is first washed in soap
and water to remove any dirt or other foreign matter it may contain.
It is then fulled, which consists in shrinking the cloth both in
length and breadth, thus rendering the texture heavier and denser.
Next it is "gigged" or napped. This is accomplished by passing the
face of the matted cloth against a cylinder covered with sharp
pointed teasels which draw out the fibers from the yarn. This
operation is continued until a nap more or less dense is raised over
the entire surface.

From the gig the cloth is taken to the shearing machine, the revolving
blades of which cut the long, irregular nap down to a uniform level.
Sometimes the style of finish called for is that approaching a
threadbare cassimere, and in this case great care is necessary to
prevent the blades from cutting the yarn. In the rough finish the nap,
although sparingly raised, is comparatively long. Having been napped
and sheared, the cloth is pressed and carefully examined for defects,
then brushed, pressed, and highly steamed. When measured, rolled, and
steamed, it is ready for market, and is used mostly for ladies' and
gentlemen's suitings. The pattern and design are light stripes and
checks of small dimensions. Cheviot is a name given to many materials
used for suiting.

=Chinchilla.= Heavy coating with rough wavy face. The name is Spanish
for a fur-bearing animal of the mink species.

=Chudah.= Applied to billiard cloth; relates to color. Chudah is the
Hindoo name of a bright green cloth.

=Corduroy.= Heavy corded cotton material used for servants' livery.
The name is from the French Corde du Roi--king's cords.

=Cote Cheval.= In France corded cloth for riding costumes, such as
Bedford cord, is called cote cheval, the application being through
cheval, horse; cote, ribbed or lined.

=Coupure.= Coupure is French for cut through. Coupure or cut cashmere
is a cashmere weave showing lines cut through the twills lengthwise of
the piece.

=Covert.= Heavy twilled cloth in natural undyed shades, used in
England for men's overcoats worn while riding to covert in fox

=Delaine.= From the French "of wool"; applies to the most primitive
weave of plain wool yarn. Thirty years ago delaine was the staple
dress goods stock. It was made in solid colors.

=Diagonal Cheviot.= Same as cheviot, only in the weaving the pattern
is marked by zigzag lines or stripes.

=Doeskin.= Of the broadcloth range, made with shiny napped face, soft
finish, as the pelt of a doe.

=Drap d'Ete.= A heavy cashmere or double warp merino, with the back
teasled or scratched, used mostly for clergymen's clothing and in
lighter weights for women's dresses. The name is French for "cloth of

=Empress Cloth.= Similar to poplin; made of hard twisted worsted
filling and cotton warp. Was made a success in the early seventies of
the last century by the Empress Eugenie of France. Empress cloth was a
staple in all well-regulated dress goods lines.

=Epingline.= A fine corded fabric of wool or silk, showing the cords
woven close together and appearing as if lined with a pin point. This
application is from epingle, French for pin.

=Etamine.= French name for bolting or sifting cloth, made of silk for
sifting flour; applied to mesh or net weaves in America.

=Felt.= Fabric made by rolling or pressing a pulpy mass or mixture of
wool into a flat mat. The name is from the process. To felt is to mix
and press into shape.

=Flannel.= Wales appears to have been the original home of flannel,
and history informs us that this was the only textile produced in that
country for hundreds of years. It is constructed either of cotton or
wool, or of an intermixture of these fibers, and is a coarse-threaded,
loosely woven, light-weight fabric, more or less spongy and elastic,
with an unfinished, lusterless surface. Generally speaking all grades
of plain colored flannel are piece dyed, the soft open texture of the
goods permitting the fibers to absorb the dye as readily in the web as
in the yarn. Flannels are subjected to several finishing operations,
such as fulling, teaseling, pressing, and stretching. Flannels do not
require a great deal of fulling. All that is necessary is enough to
give a degree of stability and body to the goods.

=Dress Flannel.= All wool fabric used chiefly for women's winter
dresses; also called flannel suiting. It has a diversity of qualities,
colors, and styles of finish. It is commonly put up in double fold,
width from twenty-six to fifty inches.

=French Flannel.= A fine, soft twill, woven variety dyed in solid
shades, and also printed with patterns after the manner of calico;
used for morning gowns, dressing sacques, waists, etc.

=Shaker Flannel.= A variety of white flannel finished with
considerable nap, composed of cotton warp and woolen weft.

=Indigo Blue.= A superior all wool grade used in the manufacture
of men's suits and particularly for the uniform of members of the
G. A. R.

=Mackinaw.= The name applied to an extra heavy blanket-like material
used in cold climates by miners and lumbermen for shirts and

=Navy Twilled Flannel.= A heavy all wool variety commonly dyed indigo
blue, commonly used in the manufacture of overshirts for out-door
laborers, firemen, sailors, and miners.

=Silk Warp Flannel.= A high grade, pure variety of flannel woven with
a silk warp and a fine woolen weft. It is a very soft, light-weight,
loosely woven flannel and runs only in narrow widths, twenty-seven
inches. If the finishing process is carried beyond fulling the texture
is rendered hard and firm, the cloth thus losing its softness and
elasticity. In the teaseling process it is necessary for the nap to be
raised only slightly, and this is commonly done in the direction of
the grain or twist of the warp. The perfection of a flannel finish
lies not in the smooth appearance of the cloth, but in its full, rich
softness. Sometimes the nap is sheared, but more often it is pressed
down flat upon the face of the cloth. After a thorough drying, and
careful examination for defects, the goods are rolled on boards, and
are ready for market. It is used for infants' wear and shawls, for
undergarments, bed coverings, and also to some extent for outer
garments in weights and styles adapted for that purpose.

=Baby Flannel.= A very light-weight variety woven of fine, soft wool,
smooth finish, bleached pure white.

=Florentine.= A heavy twilled mohair fabric for men's wear which is
sold largely to Italy and Spain. The name is from Florence, Italy.

=Foule.= A twilled, unsheared cloth; that is, the face appears to be
unsinged, and shows the woolly roughness in a slight degree. The cloth
when woven in the gray is fulled or shrunken in width by soaking in
soapsuds and passing it while wet through holes of different sizes in
a steel plate. The name is from fouler, French, to full or shrink.

=Frieze.= Frieze is a coarse, heavy cloth with a curly surface and
made at first of lamb's wool. It is now made from coarse grades of
wool. It is thick and heavily napped, and is used in the manufacture
of warm outer garments, particularly for men's wear. It was named
after the people of Friesland in Holland in the 13th century, and is
famous to-day as an Irish fabric. Irish frieze has extraordinary
durability, and the fibers are the longest and strongest made. The
weave is plain, small twill, or herring bone. When not of a solid
color it is usually a mixture, the colors being mixed in the raw
state. The wool is dyed in the raw state in mass, then doubled after

=Gloria.= Plain weave of silk and wool, and silk and cotton; first
made for umbrella covering. Name means bright.

=Granada.= Popular weave of mohair, made in coating weight for
Spanish trade. Granada is a city in Spain.

=Grenadine.= Originally a plain, openwork, net-like fabric of silk,
mohair, cotton, or wool. We have grenadines in Jacquards and in set
patterns. The name is an adaptation of Granada.

=Henrietta Cloth.= A twilled cashmere of light weight and high finish,
originally made with silk warp and wool filling in Yorkshire, England.
The name was given in honor of Henrietta Maria of England, Queen of
Charles I. The silk warp, hand-woven fabric was first produced about
the year 1660.

=Homespun.= A rough, loosely woven material made from coarse yarn. It
is soft but rather clumsy. A general term used to designate cloth spun
or wrought at home. The homespun of the present day is a woolen fabric
in imitation of those fabrics made by hand before the introduction of
textile machinery. It is made of a coarse, rough, and uneven thread;
usually of plain weave and no felting. It was woven by the early
settlers of the Eastern and Southern States. It is now used as woolen
suiting for men's wear and in various kinds of coarse, spongy, shaggy
cloth for women's gowns.

=Hop Sacking.= A coarse bagging made commonly of a combination of hemp
and jute, used for holding hops during transportation. The name hop
sacking is also applied to a variety of woolen dress goods made from
different classes of yarn. It is made of carded woolen fabric of the
plainest kind. The cloth is characterized by an open weave, and a
square check-like mesh, the structure being designed to imitate that
of the coarse jute bagging. It has very little finish, is usually dyed
in solid colors, and is used for women's and children's dresses.

=Jeans.= Cotton or woolen coarse twilled fabric. In cotton used for
linings, in wool for men's cheap clothing. The name is from a Genoese
coin, relating to the price of the cloth; so much for one jean.

=Kersey.= A very heavy, felted, satin finish woolen cloth made with
the cotton weave or cross twill for face, and cotton weave or four
harness satin for back. It was originally made with fine Merino lamb's
wool for face, and somewhat coarser grade for back. The cheaper grades
are manufactured from a fine-fibered wool and shoddy, with low grades
of shoddy and mungo for back. It is named from an English town,
Kersey, where from the eleventh to the fifteenth century a large
woolen trade was carried on. The Kersey of early history was a coarse
cloth, known under different names, and before knitting was used for
stockings. In the construction of Kersey the cloth is woven a few
inches wider in the loom (and correspondingly longer) than it is to
appear in the finished state. This is done in order that the meshes
may be closed up in the fulling mill to insure a covering of threads.
Previous to fulling, however, the face of the cloth is gigged to
produce a good covering for the threads by forming a light nap, which
is fitted in. In the fulling operation, which comes next, the cloth is
shrunk to its proper width and density, usually to a degree rendering
it difficult to see the individual warp and filling threads, so
closely are they matted together. Fulling is followed by gigging, and
in this process a nap more or less heavy is raised on the face of the
goods by means of teasels. The cloth is run through the gig several
times and then sheared in order to render the fibers forming the nap
short, even, and of uniform length. Great care is exercised in the
shearing, as the nap must be cropped quite close and yet not expose
the threads or cut the face. The next operation is scouring or
steaming, in which live steam is forced through every part of the
goods for the purpose of developing the natural luster of the wool. In
case the goods are to be piece dyed, the dyeing follows scouring.
After steaming, the cloth is thoroughly matted and gigged again, care
being taken to avoid stirring up the ground nap. It is then dried and
the nap briskly brushed in a steam brusher and laid evenly in one
direction. Again the cloth is slightly steamed and primed, face up.
The result of this treatment is the production of a texture firm, yet
pliable, with a highly lustrous face and one not liable to wear rough
or threadbare. Kersey is used for overcoats.

=Kerseymere.= Light weight twilled worsted; same derivative of name as

=Linsey Woolsey.= Coarse cloth of linen and wool used as skirtings by
the British peasantry. The name is from the components of the cloth.

=Melrose.= Double twilled silk and wool fabric; named for Melrose, a
town on the Tweed, in Scotland.

=Melton.= A thick, heavy woolen fabric with short nap, feeling
somewhat rough. Meltons are made firm in the loom. The weaves for
single cloth meltons are usually plain, and three or four harness
twill. For double cloths the plain weave is used, or a weave with a
plain face and a one-third weave on the back. All trace of the weave
is destroyed in the finishing. The colors usually black or dark blue.

=Meltonette.= A cloth of the same general appearance as melton, of
light weight, for women's wear.

=Merino.= A fabric woven of the wool of the Merino sheep, twilled on
both sides, the twill being uneven. Merino resembles cashmere.

=Mohair Brilliantine.= A dress fabric resembling alpaca, of superior
quality, and sometimes finished on both sides. The name is from the
Arabic mukayyan, cloth of goat's hair. It is made from the long,
silky hair of the Angora goat of Asia Minor, a species which is being
introduced into the United States. The fabric has a hard, wiry feel,
and if made from the pure material has a high luster. It has cotton
warp and luster worsted filling. The weave is plain ground, or with a
small Jacquard figure, and when a very lustrous fabric is wanted, the
warp yarn is of finer counts than the filling yarn. The warp and
filling yarns are dyed previous to weaving. They may be of the same
color or different colors. The contrast of colors in connection with
the weave gives the fabric a pretty effect. Fabrics made with dyed
yarns are usually given a dry finish, that is, simply run through the
press and cylinder heated, after which they are rolled and then
packed. Those made with undyed filling are first scoured, then dyed,
after which they are run through a rotary press with fifty or sixty
pounds of steam heat. Mohair brilliantine is used for dress goods.

=Montagnac= is heavy overcoating. The French montagne, for mountain,
is the origin of the name, being for mountain wear.

=Orleans.= Cloth of cotton warp and bright wool fulling, made in
Orleans, France. Many of the so-called alpacas and mohairs of to-day
are Orleans. These fabrics are mostly cross-dyed, that is, fabrics
with warp and filling of different shades. After weaving they are
cross-dyed or redyed to give solid colors and glace effects.

=Panama Cloth= is a plain weave worsted fabric of no uniform
construction or finish. Fabrics sold under this name vary
considerably. They are of solid colors, usually piece dyed, and are
used for suitings.

=Prunella.= From the French prunelle, which means plum, a stout
worsted material named from its color, which is a purplish shade
similar to that of a ripe plum. The name was originally applied to a
kind of lasting of which clergymen's gowns were made. It is now used
to denote a variety of rich, satin-faced worsted cloth employed for
women's dresses. The fibers are worsted. Prunella is dyed either in
piece or yarn state and is hand finished.

=Sacking.= Plain solid color flannel in special shades for women's
dressing sacks, also applied to a fabric made of hemp for grain sacks.

=Sanglier.= A plain fabric of wiry worsted or mohair yarn, closely
woven, with a rough finished surface. Sanglier is French for wild
boar, the hairy, wiry cloth resembling the coat of the animal.

=Sebastopol.= A twill-faced cloth named from Sebastopol, the Russian
fortified town captured by the English and French in 1855.

=Serge.= Under this name are classed a large number of fabrics of
twill construction. In weight and texture a modern serge resembles
flannel, except that it is twill woven and composed of fine yarn
finished with a smoother surface. Serge comes from the Italian word
sergea, meaning cloth of wool mixed with silk. Serges are woven of
worsted, of silk, or of cotton yarn, and variously dyed, finished, and
ornamented, as silk serge, serge suiting, storm serge, mohair serge,
etc. Worsted serges of various kinds and degrees have been known since
the twelfth century. Worsted serge appears to have come into general
use as a material for men's wear in the sixteenth century. Modern
serges vary but little from those made two centuries ago. They are
dyed in a great variety of colors. On leaving the loom the cloth is
washed and scoured with soap and water to remove the dirt and oil (if
these remain the cloth will not take the dye properly). After dyeing,
it is passed through a pair of metal rollers under pressure, which
renders the surface more regular and even and of a better luster. This
process accomplishes more than is required, for it produces a bloom on
the surface which will show rain specks when in the garment, if it is
allowed to remain. This is ordinary serge. In order to make storm
serge it is necessary to remove part of the bloom, and to accomplish
this the cloth is steamed sufficiently to neutralize the effect of
pressing. Steaming deadens the bloom and prevents the effects of rain
showing on the cloth. The wearing qualities of serge are good, but it
gets a shine easily. It is used for dress goods and suitings. Serge
suiting used for men's clothing is a variety of light, wiry, worsted
yarn woven with a flat twill, and dyed black or in shades of blue,
fifty-four inches in width. Mohair serge is woven with a cotton warp
and a mohair filling, thirty-two inches in width. This is dyed in a
variety of colors and largely used as lining material for women's
clothes, men's coats, and overcoats. Storm serge, designed to
withstand exposure to stormy weather, is a coarse variety of worsted
dress goods produced in a wide range of colors and qualities. The
twill is wider, the texture stouter, and the surface rougher and
cleaner than that of ordinary serge. Iridescent serge is a variety of
worsted dress goods woven with warp and filling of different colors,
causing a shimmering or iridescent effect. Cravenette serge is a fine
twilled variety having a firm, closely woven texture, dyed black and
in colors, and is used for women's gowns, men's summer suits, etc.
Serge de Barry is a high-grade dress goods of fine texture, with fine
twill, and wiry feel.

=Shoddy= is made from old woolen stockings or rags, shredded or picked
by hand or machine, to render the yarn suitable for spinning a second
time, or to give a fiber that can be woven or felted with a wool or
cotton warp. The name has come to mean cheap, make-believe.

=Sicilian.= Heavy weight cotton warp, mohair filled cloth. Sicilienne,
the proper name, was made in the Island of Sicily as a heavy ribbed,
all silk fabric.

=Sultane.= Twilled cloth of silk and wool; finished in the rough, not
singed or sheared. The name is from Sultana, the first wife of the

=Tamise.= Similar to etamine, with a very close mesh, made first of
silk and wool. Tamis is French for sieve.

=Tartans.= Plaids of the Scottish clans worn by men in the Highlands
of Scotland as a diagonal scarf, fastened on one shoulder and crossing
the body. Each clan had a distinctive tartan or plaid. The name was
adapted from the French tiretaine, a thin woolen checked cloth.

=Thibet.= Heavy, coarse weave of goat's hair, made by the Thibetans in
Asia for men's wear.

=Tricot.= A heavy, compound fabric characterized by a line effect
running warp way or filling way of the piece, usually produced with
either woolen or worsted yarn. Tricot was originally a name given to
fabrics made of woolen yarn or thread by hand knitting, and is the
French word meaning knitting. The term was later applied to materials
made on a knitting frame and now known as jersey cloth. Since 1840 the
name tricot has been applied to finely woven woolen cloth, the weave
of which is intended to imitate the face effect of a knitted fabric.
The fabric is composed of woolen and worsted fibers, sometimes with
cotton warp woven so as to hide the cotton in finishing. The tricot
line is similar to the rib line in a ribbed cloth except that it is
not so pronounced. All tricots are constructed with two sets of warp
thread and are characterized by a texture which, while dense, is
singularly elastic, in this respect being somewhat similar to heavy
jersey cloth. Tricots are commonly dyed in plain colors, and are
finished clear so as to show the filling. When intended for trousers
they are ornamented with small, neat patterns.

=Tweed.= A rough unfinished fabric of soft, open, and flexible
texture, of wool or cotton and wool, usually of yarn of two or more
shades; originally the product of the weavers on the bank of the river
Tweed in Scotland. The face of the cloth presents an unfinished
appearance rather than a sharp and clearly defined pattern.

=Veiling= includes light weight, usually plain weave fabrics of
various constructions; generally made with singed or polished yarns.
They are in solid colors. The use is designated by the name.

=Venetian.= Venetian cloth has a worsted or cotton warp and worsted
filling; named from Venetia, a country around Venice. The warp yarns
are firmly twisted, the twist being in the opposite direction to the
twist in the filling yarn. Venetian is a trade term of wide
application, in use since early times as a descriptive title for
various fabrics, textures, and garments. One of the many varieties is
a species of twill weaving in which the lines or twills are of a
rounded form and arranged in a more or less upright position, hence a
closely woven worsted cloth. The name is also applied to other
fabrics, as a twilled lining fabric woven with a cotton warp and a
worsted filling known as Italian cloth. It is dyed in plain colors and
is piece or yarn dyed for men. For women's wear it has light weight
and plain colors with mixed effects and closely sheared nap. It is
finished smooth so as to show the yarns prominently. Venetian cloth
has not so much felting as broadcloth; it shows the weave more, but
has the same lustrous finish.

=Vigogne= or =Vicuna=. A soft wool cloth of the cheviot order, with
teasled face, made from the wool of the vicuna, a South American
animal. Vigogne is the French name for the animal.

=Vigoureux.= A name applied to a plain or twill mixture, woven of
undyed natural wool yarns. The French spinners found that the
strongest yarns were those of the undyed wool. Sometimes two or more
shades or tones are spun into one thread. The name is French for

=Voiles.= Voiles are plain weave worsted fabrics made with hard
twisted yarns. As clear a face as possible is secured in finishing,
the cloth being singed or sheared closely if the yarns are not made
comparatively free from loose fibers before being woven. Voiles are
dyed in solid colors, and are used principally for dress goods.

=Whipcord.= Hard twisted worsted twills, either solid or mixed colors.
The name is from the hard twisted lash of a whip.

=Worsted Diagonals= are characterized by prominent weave effects
running diagonally across the cloth. The goods are usually of a solid
color, and are given a finish which brings the weave into prominence.
Diagonals are used for suitings.

=Unfinished worsted= is a fabric woven with yarn with very little
twist in it, and finished so as to make it appear covered with loose
fibers, concealing the twill effect. After leaving the loom the cloth
is placed in a fulling machine which condenses the fibers, thus
increasing the density. It is then passed over hot presses after a
slight shearing.

=Finished Worsted= is woven with yarn with a considerable twist, and
finished in such a way as to show the construction of the cloth
clearly. The finishing consists simply of scouring the cloth and not
fulling it and then passing it through hot water baths between heavy
rolls to remove all the soap. It is then sheared and pressed.

=Zephyr.= Light worsted yarn, also light weight cotton gingham. Zephyr
is Greek for the light west wind.

=Zibeline.= A cloth manufactured with Merino lamb's wool for warp, and
a light wool mixed with camel's hair for filling; or, worsted warp and
camel's hair for filling; or either of the foregoing warps and a
mixture of wool, camel's hair, and fine cashmere for filling. The long
cashmere hair spreads over the surface. Used for ladies' tailor-made
coats or suits, according to weight. The name is derived from the
Latin word sabellum, meaning sable, and was applied originally to a
variety of long-haired fur generally thought to be the same as sable.
Zibeline has long hairs on its right side, some grades being almost
like fur.

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