Dyeing Of Gloria





Gloria is a material which during the last few years has become of

considerable importance as furnishing a fine lustrous fabric at a

comparatively low price. The perfection to which the art of dyeing has

attained and the facilities now available to the dyer, enable this to

be produced more beautiful than ever, and naturally an increased

demand for it as a dress fabric has developed.



Gloria is woven from the two fibres, wool and silk, of a fine texture

to enable it to be used in the place of a silk fabric. Formerly it was

usually woven with the wool and silk yarns already dyed, especially

when a shot effect was to be produced, this being done by a twill

weave of the fabric and by the use of yarns of two very different

colours in the case of shot fabrics. By the introduction of

dye-stuffs derived from coal tar the cloth is now dyed after being

woven, care being taken to choose those which will dye the two fibres

equally well when self-shades are wanted, or those which will dye one

fibre better than the other, and thus allow a woven piece of gloria to

be dyed of two different colours. As most dyers know, the most

brilliant effects are obtained when the finished woven piece can be

dyed. Then all the grease and dirt which has become attached to it

during the operations of spinning the yarns and weaving the pieces can

be removed before dyeing, thus leaving the fabric in a perfectly clean

condition. Thus no after cleansing is required, whereas when the (p. 189)

fibres are dyed in the yarn the goods must be cleansed after weaving

to free them from dirt, and such cleaning has a somewhat deleterious

effect upon the brilliancy of the colour of the finished fabric, more

especially in the case of light colours.



Gloria may be in one colour only, a self-colour as it is called; this

case is comparatively simple, the only care that is required being to

select dyes which have an equal affinity for the two fibres or which

give but slightly different shades. Still, some good effects are

obtained when dyes are used which dye the silk and wool different

colours but give the combined effect of a self-colour. Or the fibre

may be purposely dyed in two different colours in some cases to give

the shot effect. This is much more troublesome, but with a little

care can be carried out with good results. The dyes available for

dyeing gloria may be classified, according to their behaviour in

regard to their dyeing of the two fibres, into three groups as

follows:--



Group A.--Those which will dye the two fibres of equal shade.



Group B.--Those which will dye the wool at boiling heat more readily

than the silk.



Group C.--Those which will dye the silk only in a cold bath.



Group A consists of those dyes which can be used in dyeing

self-colours on gloria from acid baths. It includes Alkali Blue,

Naphthylamine Blacks, Naphthol Green B, Indian Yellow, Croceine A Z,

Croceine Orange, Orange R, Brilliant Croceine M, Rose Bengale,

Thiocarmine R, Soluble Blue, Formyl Violet S 4 B, Acid Green, Croceine

Orange G, Carmoisin, Acid Violet 5 B, Fast Acid Violet 10 B, Fast

Green Bluish, Rhodamine, Silk Blue, Victoria Black, Archil, Turmeric,

Safranine, Auramine, Quinoline Yellow, Azoflavine, Victoria Blue and

Bismarck Brown.



Group B comprises those dye-stuffs which in a boiling acid (p. 190)

bath dye the wool deeper than the silks, in other words have more

affinity for the wool than the silk, Tropaeoline O, Acid Magenta,

Indigo Extract, Phloxine, Naphthol Yellow, Orange G G, Scarlet S, Azo

Red A, Eosines, Thiocarmine R, Naphthol Black B B, New Victoria Black

Blue, Erythrosine, and Roccelline.



The silk becomes tinted to a more or less extent when in such a bath,

but often the colour is readily removed either by subsequent passage

through boiling water or through hot soap liquor. A very good clearing

can be effected by the use of a bath of acetate of ammonia. Naphthol

Yellow, for instance, only imparts a very faint shade of yellow when

thus dyed, and this is easily removed by boiling-water treatment.



Group C.--Those dye-stuffs which will dye the silk more readily in a

cold bath than the wool. These comprise most of the basic dyes, such

as Thioflavine T, Safranine, Brilliant Green, Methyl Violet, Magenta,

New Methylene Blue, Bismarck Brown, Rose Bengale, Phloxine, Acid

Greens, Formyl Violet S 4 B, Rhodamine, Solid Blue, etc.



Gloria may be dyed either by a one-bath or two-bath process, and

either one or two colours, as may be required. In both cases advantage

may be taken of the different affinities of the two fibres for the

dye-stuffs used, as, for instance, the silk may be dyed brown, the

wool olive by using a mixture of Acid Yellow, Indigo extract and

Orange G. Indigo extract, Cochineal, Acid Magenta, Picric acid,

Naphthol Yellow, and Tartrazine dye the wool only at the boil.



The following recipes will serve to illustrate the foregoing remarks

and show how this important fabric may be dyed:--



Deep Gold.--The dye-bath is made from 2 lb. Indian Yellow, 10 lb.

Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, dyed at the boil. In this

and following recipes the quantities are for 100 lb.



Orange.--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Indian Yellow, 19 lb. (p. 191)

Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.



Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Scarlet 3 R, 10 lb. Glauber's

salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Another scarlet is got from 2 lb.

sulphuric acid. Another scarlet is got from 2 lb. Croceine Scarlet

3 B, 2 lb. sulphuric acid, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; by using the 5 B

Scarlet a bluer shade can be dyed. Azo Cochineal also dyes a fine

scarlet on gloria.



Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Carmoisin B, 10 lb. Glauber's

salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The 7 B Croceine Scarlet also dyes a

fine crimson of a more fiery tone than the last, while 2-1/2 lb. Azo

Fuchsine G dyes a bluer shade of crimson.



Rose.--A fine rose is obtained with 2 lb. Rhodamine B, 10 lb.

Glauber's salt, and a little acetic acid. 1 lb. Phloxine dyes a fine

deep rose; the silk comes out a paler colour than the wool, but the

general effect is good.



Deep Maroon.--Make the dye-bath from 1-1/2 lb. Croceine A Z, 1/2 lb.

Indian Yellow, 1/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.

Enter the goods, work at the boil for an hour, then cool down to

120 deg. F., enter an equal quantity of dye-stuff and work for an hour

longer.



Pale Maroon.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Azo Bordeaux, 10 lb.

Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.



Black.--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Naphthylamine Black D, 1 lb.

Acid Green B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; work at

the boil for twenty minutes, then allow to cool to 120 deg. or 130 deg.

F., then work an hour longer. Another black can be dyed in a similar

way from 5 lb. Victoria Black B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.

sulphuric acid.



Violet.--Use 2 lb. Acid Violet 5 B, or 2 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B,

10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Fast Acid Violet 10 B

gives a bluer shade than the above.



Green.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Acid Green G G, 10 lb. (p. 192)

Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil. This

gives a bright yellow shade of green; a bluer shade can be got from

Acid Green 6 B or Acid Green B, while Fast Green Bluish gives very

blue greens.



Coeruleum Blue.--Dye with 3/4 lb. Silk Blue B E S, 10 lb. Glauber's

salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; this gives a very fine bright blue.



Deep Indigo Blue.--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Solid Blue R, 2 lb.

Thiocarmine R paste, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.



Deep Violet Brown.--Dye with 3 lb. Croceine A Z, 1-1/4 lb. Indian

Yellow, 1-3/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and

2 lb. sulphuric acid for an hour at the boil, and for an hour at

120 deg. F.



Blue Black.--Make the dye-bath with 5 lb. New Victoria Blue Black,

10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil.

Another plan is to use 5 lb. Naphthylamine Black 4 B and 10 lb.

bisulphate of soda.



Dark Grey.--Prepare a dye-bath with 3 lb. Naphthol Black 3 B, 4 lb.

Naphthol Green B, 1 lb. Amaranth, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 8 lb.

copperas, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil for an hour

and then rinsing in water to which a little acetate of ammonia has

been added. The silk is dyed grey and the wool a black.



Brown.--A fine yellow brown shot with lilac is obtained by first

dyeing in a bath of 5 lb. Naphthol Yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and

2 lb. sulphuric acid. Wash in hot water, then dye with 2-1/2 lb. Solid

Blue P G, 1-1/2 oz. Methyl Violet B O, and 5 lb. acetic acid in the

cold.



Wool, Orange; Silk, Pale Green.--Dye the wool with 1-1/2 lb. Orange

G G, 6 oz. Naphthol Green B, 2-1/2 oz. Naphthol Red C, 10 lb.

bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; and the silk with

1/2 lb. Milling Yellow and 1/2 lb. Acid Green.



Wool, Black; Silk, Light Grey.--Dye in a bath with 5 lb. (p. 193)

Anthracene Acid Black S T, 4-1/2 oz. Fast Yellow S, 10 lb. bisulphate

of soda, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The silk is cleaned by boiling for

ten minutes in a soap bath.



Wool, Bright Red; Silk, Blush Rose.--The gloria silk is dyed in a

bath of 3 lb. Naphthol Red O, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb.

sulphuric acid. After dyeing, soap for ten minutes.



Wool, Black; Silk, Green.--Dye the wool in a bath containing 5 lb.

Anthracene Acid Black S T, 5 oz. Fast Yellow S, 2 lb. oxalic acid,

10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 15 lb. acetic acid. Work the goods in this

at the boil for an hour, then lift, add 3/4 lb. bichromate of potash,

and boil for twenty minutes longer. Clean the silk by boiling in a

bath of soap for twenty minutes, then dye in a cold bath containing

1 lb. Thioflavine T and 1 lb. Brilliant Green.



Wool, Dark Maroon; Silk, Pale Blue.--After the manner described in

the first recipe, dye the wool with 1 lb. Orange G G, 3 lb. Naphthol

Green B, 2 lb. Brilliant Cochineal 2 R, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and

2 lb. sulphuric acid. Dye the silk with 1-1/2 lb. Pure Blue O T.



Wool, Violet; Silk, Green.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Acid Violet

4 B, 9 oz. Indigotine extra, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb.

sulphuric acid. The dyeing is carried on at the boil until the bath is

exhausted of colour, whereupon the goods are well rinsed in water.

They are next soaped at 160 deg. F. for ten minutes in a liquor containing

1/2 oz. soap per gallon, then rinsed. Next a dye-bath is made with

1 lb. Acid Green, 8 oz. Milling Yellow O, and 1 lb. acetic acid, the

goods being treated in this in the cold until the desired shade is

obtained, then lifted, rinsed and dried.



Violet and Pink.--A fine effect of violet shot with pink is obtained

by dyeing in a bath of 1-1/2 lb. Indigo extract, 1/2 lb. Rhodamine B,

10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.



Brown Olive and Green is dyed in a bath made with 1 lb. (p. 194)

Quinoline Yellow, 1 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 1/4 lb. Fast Green Bluish,

10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. By using about half

the above quantities of dye-stuffs a drab effect shot with green can

be obtained.



Crimson and Green.--The first bath is made from 4 lb. Azo Red A and

10 lb. bisulphate of soda, worked for an hour at the boil; then treat

in a weak bath of acetate of ammonia; and dye the silk in a cold bath

of 2 oz. Solid Green Crystals, 1/4 lb. Thioflavine T, and 5 lb. acetic

acid.



Violet and Pink.--Dye in a bath of 1-1/4 lb. Indigo extract, 10 lb.

Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.



Brown and Pink.--This is dyed in a bath made from 1-1/4 lb. Fast

Yellow, 5 oz. Rhodamine B, 1/4 lb. indigo extract, 10 lb. Glauber's

salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The silk dyes a pale pink while the

general effect is that of a fine fawn brown with a reddish shot

effect.



Dark Green and Pale Crimson.--This is done in two baths, the first

is made with 8 lb. Naphthol Green B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb.

sulphuric acid, and 7 lb. copperas, working at the boil; then treat

with hot water and dye in a fresh bath with 6 oz. Safranine Prima and

5 lb. acetic acid in the cold. The combined effect of the two is that

of a brown shot with green.



Orange and Green.--This gives a splendid shot effect and is dyed as

follows. Work for an hour at the boil, for thirty minutes in a bath of

boiling water, then enter into a cold bath of 5 oz. Thioflavine T,

3 oz. Brilliant Green, and 3 lb. acetic acid; work for thirty minutes,

or until shade is obtained.



Orange and Blue.--Use first dye-bath as in the last, then, after

washing in hot water, dye in a bath of 2 oz. New Methylene Blue N, and

3 lb. acetic acid.



Silk, Sky Blue; Wool, Drab.--Make a dye-bath with 20 lb. acetic

acid, 3/4 oz. Indigotine, 3 oz. Fast Yellow extra and 2 oz. Azo (p. 195)

Fuchsine G. Work at the boil for one hour at 100 deg. F., then pass

into a bath of 3/4 oz. Turquoise Blue B B, and 2 lb. acetic acid,

working for half an hour at 80 deg.



Silk, Pink; Wool, Pale Blue.--Make a dye-bath with 15 lb. acetic

acid and 4-1/2 oz. Indigotine. Work at the boil for an hour, then pass

into a bran bath as before; next enter into a dye-bath at 80 deg. to

90 deg. of 3/4 oz. Brilliant Rhoduline R B, 1-1/2 oz. Auramine I I,

and 2 lb. acetic acid.



Silk, Green; Wool, Dark Crimson.--The first bath is made from 3 lb.

Azo Fuchsine G, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G and 20 lb. acetic acid; then

follows the bran and the final dye-bath, which is made from 1-1/2 oz.

Imperial Green G I, and 2 lb. acetic acid.



Silk, Orange; Wool, Black.--A dye-bath is made from 2 lb.

Indigotine, 2 lb. Indian Yellow G, 1/2 lb. Rhodamine G, and 20 lb.

acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour; then lift, wash and dry.



Silk, Light Green; Wool, Dark Blue.--Make a dye-bath from 1/2 lb.

Azo Fuchsine G, 2 lb. Fast Light Green, and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work

at the boil to shade; then lift, wash and dry.



Silk, Yellow; Wool, Terra Cotta.--A dye-bath is made from 1-1/2 oz.

Indigotine, 3/4 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 9 oz. Indian Yellow R, and 20 lb.

acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour; then lift, wash and dry.



Silk, Light Sea Green; Wool, Pale Sage.--Make the dye-bath with

1/2 lb. Fast Yellow extra, 3 oz. Azo Fuchsine G, 1-1/2 oz. Fast Green

bluish, and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work as in the last recipe.



Silk, Light Green; Wool, Brown.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Azo

Fuchsine G, 2-1/2 lb. Fast Yellow extra, 1/2 lb. Fast Green bluish,

and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour.



Silk, Pale Blue; Wool, Crimson.--Make a dye-bath with 2 lb. (p. 196)

Azo Crimson L and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one

hour, then pass into a bran bath for half an hour at 90 deg. F.,

and into another bath containing 1/2 lb. Turquoise Blue G, and

2 lb. acetic acid, at 90 deg. F., for half an hour; then wash

and dry.



Silk, Light Drab; Wool, Lavender.--Make the first dye-bath from

3 oz. Indigotine, 2 oz. Azo Fuchsine G, and 20 lb. acetic acid. After

working an hour at the boil, pass into a bran bath for half an hour,

afterwards topping with 1-1/2 oz. Bismarck Brown R and 2 lb. acetic

acid.





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