Dyeing Union (mixed Cotton And Wool) Fabrics





There is now produced a great variety of textile fabrics of every

conceivable texture by combining the two fibres, cotton and wool, in a

number of ways. The variety of these fabrics has of late years

considerably increased, which increase may be largely ascribed to the

introduction of the direct dyeing colouring matters--the Diamine dyes,

the Benzo dyes, the Congo and the Zambesi dyes; for in the dyeing of

wool-cotton fabrics they have made a revolution. The dyer of union

fabrics, that is fabrics composed of wool and cotton, was formerly put

to great straits to obtain uniform shades on the fabrics supplied to

him owing to the difference in the affinity of the fibres for the

dye-stuffs then known. Now the direct dyes afford him a means of

easily dyeing a piece of cotton-wool cloth in any colour of a uniform

shade, while the production of two-coloured effects is much more under

his control, and has led to the increased production of figured dress

fabrics with the ground in one fibre (wool) and colour, and the design

in another fibre (cotton) and colour. The number of direct dyes issued

by the various colour manufacturers is so great that it would take a

fairly considerable space to discuss them all.



To obtain good results it is needful that the dyer of union fabrics

should be a man of keen observation and have a thorough knowledge of

the dyes he is using, for each dye makes a rule to itself as regards

its power of dyeing wool and cotton; some go better on to the (p. 169)

cotton than on to the wool, and vice versa. Some dye wool best

at the boil, others equally well below that heat; some go on the

cotton at a moderate temperature, others require the dye-bath to be

boiling; some will go to the cotton only and appear to ignore the

wool.



The presence or absence in the dye-bath of such bodies as carbonate of

soda, Glauber's salt, etc., has a material influence on the degree of

the affinity of the dye-stuff for the two fibres, as will perhaps be

noted hereafter. Again, while some of the dyes produce equal colours

on both fibres, there are others where the tone is different. With all

these peculiarities of the Diamine and other direct dyes the union

dyer must make himself familiar. These dyes are used in neutral baths,

that is, along with the dye-stuff. It is often convenient to use along

with the direct dyes some azo or acid dyes which have the property of

dyeing the wool from neutral baths; many examples of such will be

found in the practical recipes given below. The dyes now under

consideration may be conveniently classed into five groups.



(1) Those dyes which dye the cotton and wool from the same bath to

the same shade, or nearly so.--Among such are Thioflavine S, Diamine

Fast Yellow B, Diamine Orange B, Diamine Rose B D, Diamine Reds 4 B,

5 B, 6 B and 10 B, Diamine Fast Red F, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine

Brown N, Diamine Brown 3 G, B and G W, Diamine Blue R W, B X, Diamine

Blue G, Diamine Greens G and B, Diamine Black H W, Diamine Dark

Blue B, Union Black B and S, Oxydiamine Blacks B, M, D and A, Diamine

Catechine G, Union Blue B B, Oxyphenine, Chloramine Yellow,

Thioflavine S, Alkali Yellow R, Chromine G, Titan Scarlet S, Mimosa,

Primuline, Auroline, Congo Corinth B, Thiazol Yellow, Columbia Yellow,

Oxydiamine Yellow G G, Oxydiamine Oranges G and R, Diamine (p. 170)

Orange O, Oxydiamine Red S.



(2) Dyes which dye the cotton a deeper shade than the wool.--The

following belong to this group. Diamine Fast Yellow A, Diamine

Orange G and D, Diamine Catechine G, Diamine Catechine B, Diamine sky

Blue, Diamine Blues 2 B, Diamine Blue 3 B, Diamine Blue B G, Diamine

Brilliant Blue G, Diamine New Blue R, Diamine Steel Blue L, Diamine

Black R O, Diamine Black B O, Diamine Black B H, and Oxydiamine Black

S O O O, Diamine Nitrazol Brown G, Diamine Catechine B, Diamine Sky

Blue F F, Diamine Dark Blue B, Diamine Bordeaux B, Diamine Violet N,

Oxydiamine Violet B, Columbia Black B and F B, Zambesi Black B, Congo

Brown G, Direct Yellow G, Direct Orange R, Clayton Yellow, Cotton

Yellow, Orange T A, Benzopurpurine B, Brilliant Congo R, Chicago

Blues B, 4 B and 6 B.



(3) Dyes which dye wool a deeper shade than the cotton.--The dyes in

this group are not numerous. They are Diamine Gold, Diamine Scarlet B,

Diamine Scarlet 3 B, Diamine Bordeaux S, Diamine Blue R W, and Diamine

Green G, Diamine Red N O and B, Chicago Blue G and R R W, Brilliant

Purpurine R, Diamine Scarlet B, Deltapurpurine 5 B, Chrysamine, Titan

Blue, Titan Pink, Congo Oranges G and R, Erie Blue 2 G, Congo R,

Brilliant Congo R, Erika B N, Benzopurpurine 4 B and 10 B,

Chrysophenine, Titan Yellow, Titan Brown Y, R and O, Congo Brown G,

Sulphon Azurine B, Zambesi Black D.



(4) Dyes which produce different shades on the two fibres.--Diamine

Brown G and Diamine Blue 3 R, Diamine Brown V, Diamine Brown S,

Diamine Nitrazol Brown B, Diamine Blue B X and 3 R, Diamine Blue

Black E, Benzo Blue Black G, Benzopurpurine 10 B, Benzo Azurine R G

and 3 G, Columbia Red S B, Brilliant Azurine 5 G, Titan Marine (p. 171)

Blue, Congo Corinths G and B, Azo Blue, Hessian Violet, Titan

Blue, Azo Mauve, Congo Brown, Diamine Bronze G, Zambesi Browns G and

2 G, Zambesi Black F.



(5) Azo acid dyes which dye wool from neutral baths, and are

therefore suitable for shading up the wool to the cotton in union

fabric dyeing.--Among the dyes thus available may be enumerated

Naphthol Blue G and E, Naphthol Blue Black, Formyl Violet 10 B,

Lanacyl Blue B B, Lanacyl Blue R, Alkaline Blue, Formyl Violet S 4 B

and 6 B, Rocceleine, Azo Red A, Croceine A Z, Brilliant Scarlet,

Orange extra, Orange E N Z, Indian Yellow G, Indian Yellow R,

Tropaeoline O O, Naphthylamine Black 4 B, and Naphthol Blue Black,

Brilliant Scarlet G, Lanacyl Violet B, Brilliant Milling Green B,

Thiocarmine R, Formyl Blue B, Naphthylamine Blacks D, 4 B and 6 B, Azo

Acid Yellow, Curcumine Extra, Mandarine G, Ponceau 3 R B, Acid Violet

6 B, Guinea Violet 4 B, Guinea Green B, Wool Black 6 B.



Regarding the best methods of dyeing, that in neutral baths yields the

most satisfactory results in practical working. It is done in a

boiling hot or in a slightly boiling bath with the addition of

6-1/4 oz. crystallised Glauber's salt per gallon water for the first

bath, and when the baths are kept standing 20 per cent. crystallised

Glauber's salt reckoned upon the weight of the goods for each

succeeding lot.



In dyeing unions, the dye-baths must be as concentrated as possible

and must not contain more than from 25 to 30 as much water as the

goods weigh. In this respect it serve as a guide that concentrated

baths are best used dyeing dark shades while light shades can be dyed

in more dilute baths. The most important factor for producing uniform

dyeings is the appropriate regulation of the temperature of the

dye-bath. Concerning this the dyer must bear in mind that the direct

colours possess a greater affinity for cotton if dyed below the

boiling-point, and only go on the wool when the bath is boiling, (p. 172)

especially so the longer and more intensely the goods are boiled.



The following method of dyeing is perhaps the best one. Charge the

dye-bath with the requisite dye-stuff and Glauber's salt, boil up,

shut off the steam, enter the goods and let run for half an hour,

without steam, then sample. If the shade of both cotton and wool is

too light, add some more of the dye-stuffs used for both fibres, boil

up once more, and boil for a quarter to half an hour. If the wool only

is too light, or its shade different from that of the cotton, add some

more of the dye-stuff used for shading the wool and bring them again

to the boil. If, however, the cotton turns out too light or does not

correspond in shade to the wool, add some more of the dye-stuffs used

for dyeing the cotton, without, however, raising the temperature.

Prolonged boiling is necessary only very rarely, and generally only if

the goods to be dyed are difficult to penetrate or contain qualities

of wool which only with difficulty take up the dye-stuff. In such

cases, in making up the bath, dye-stuffs are to be selected some of

which go only on the wool and others which go only on the cotton

(those belonging to the second group).



The goods can then be boiled for some time, and perfect penetration

and level shades will result. If the wool takes up the dye-stuff

easily (as is frequently the case with goods manufactured from shoddy)

and are therefore dyed too dark a shade, then dye-stuffs have to be

used which principally dye the cotton, and a too high temperature is

to be avoided. In such cases it is advisable to diminish the affinity

of the wool by the addition of one-fifth of the original quantity of

Glauber's salt (about 3/8 oz. per gallon of water), and from

three-quarters to four-fifths of the dye-stuff used for the first lot.

Care has to be taken that not much of the dye-liquor is lost when

taking out the dyed goods, otherwise the quantities of Glauber's salt

and dye-stuff will have to be increased proportionately. Wooden (p. 173)

vats such as are generally used for piece dyeing have proved the

most suitable, they are heated with direct or still better with

indirect steam. The method which has proved most advantageous is to

let the steam run into a space separated from the vat by a perforated

wall into which space the required dye-stuffs and salt are placed.



The mode of working is influenced by the character of the goods, and

the following notes will be found useful by the union dyer.



Very little difficulty will be met with in dyeing such light fabrics

as Italians, cashmeres, serges and similar thin textiles lightly woven

from cotton warp and woollen weft. When deep shades (blacks, dark

blues, browns and greens) are being dyed it is not advisable to make

up the dye-bath with the whole of the dyes at once. It is much better

to add these in quantities of about one-fourth at a time at intervals

during the dyeing of the piece. It is found that the affinity of the

wool for the dyes at the boil is so much greater than is that of the

cotton that it would, if the whole of the dye were used, take up too

much of the colour and then would come up too deep in shade. Never

give a strong boil with such fabrics, but keep the bath just under the

boil which results in the wool dyeing much more nearly like to cotton.



#On Union Flannels.#--In this class of goods it is important that the

soft open feel of the goods be retained as much as possible, and for

this purpose no class of dyes offers so many advantages as the direct

colours. Only one bath being required, there is not the same amount of

manipulation needed in the dyeing operation, hence there is less risk

that the soft feel and woolly structure will be affected. As no

mordants are needed there is nothing to impart a harsh feel to the

fabrics.



#On Dress Goods, Suitings and Coatings.#--A large quantity of fabrics

for gentlemen's suits, coats and cloths in general are now made (p. 174)

from wool and cotton. Formerly the dyeing of these offered many

difficulties before the application of the direct dyes was properly

understood. Now, however the ease with which such dyes may be applied

has given considerable impetus to this class of goods, and the trade

has grown by leaps and bounds during recent years, and has been one

cause of the great cheapening of clothes which has occurred in the

same period. The dyeing of the goods with the direct colours offers

very little difficulty, and only requires that a little attention be

paid, particularly to goods in which the cotton either appears on the

surface forming a design, or is spun or twisted together with the

wool.



A good deal of shoddy is used in making the cheaper class of these

goods, and it is quite natural that such artificial wool behaves

differently from pure wool, not only with regard to its shade

resulting from mixing and working together differently dyed waste

wools, but also on account of its possessing a greater affinity for

all kinds of dye-stuff than raw wool; this in consequence of the

carbonisation and washing processes it has undergone, and also of the

mordants which the material may retain from previous processes.

Therefore (and especially in dyeing light shades on goods manufactured

of shoddy) only a small quantity of soda or borax is to be added to

the dye-bath and severe boiling is to be avoided. Wherever it is

possible goods which are to be dyed in light shades should be made

from the palest materials, and the dark qualities only used for goods

which are to be dyed in dark shades.



This rule can, of course, not always be adhered to. Quite often a

light and bright shade is to be dyed on comparatively dark material.

This cannot be achieved by simply dyeing it, the goods must be

stripped or bleached before dyeing. For this purpose either

energetically reacting, oxidising reducing agents are applied. Of the

former, bichromate of potassium is principally used. Boil the (p. 175)

goods for half to three-quarters of an hour with 3 to 5 per cent.

bichromate of potassium, 2 to 4 per cent. oxalic acid, and 3 to 5 per

cent. sulphuric acid, wash in a fresh warm bath charged with soda in

order to entirely neutralise the acid which has remained in the goods,

or else the wool would be dyed too deep a shade. In some cases

hydrosulphite has proved a useful reducing agent; it can be easily

prepared from ordinary bisulphite of soda in the following manner. Add

10 oz. ammonia (0.9 specific gravity) to a gallon of bisulphite of

soda, 32 deg. Tw.; then add slowly under a brisk stirring 10 oz.

zinc-dust, and let the entire mixture settle well, using only the

clear solution. Treat the goods from fifteen to twenty minutes in a

bath of 140 deg. F., to which first add at the boil 3/4 oz. acetic acid,

10 deg. Tw., per gallon water, and then 4 to 6 gallons clear hydrosulphite

solution per 100 gallons liquor. Then rinse very well and dye in the

usual manner; avoiding, however, too high a temperature. As on this

class of goods dark shades are mostly dyed, the goods need only very

rarely be stripped.



Bright Yellow.--Use 2 lb. Thioflavine S in a bath which contains

4 lb. Glauber's salt per 10 gallons of dye-liquor.



Good Yellow.--A very fine deep shade is dyed with 2-1/2 lb. Diamine

Gold, and 24 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow A in the same way as the last.

Here advantage is taken of the fact that while the Diamine Gold dyes

the wool better than the cotton the Diamine Yellow dyes the cotton the

deepest shade, and between the two a uniform shade of yellow is got.



Pale Gold Yellow.--Use a dye-liquor containing 4 lb. Glauber's salt

in every 10 gallons, 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow A, 2 oz. Indian

Yellow G, and 3-1/2 oz. Indian Yellow R. In this recipe we use in the

two last dyes purely wool yellows, which dye the wool the same tint as

the Fast Yellow A dyes the cotton.



Bright Yellow.--Use in the same way as the last 2-1/2 lb Diamine (p. 176)

Fast Yellow B and 3 oz. Indian Yellow G.



Gold Orange.--Use as above 2 lb. Diamine orange G, 3-1/2 oz. Indian

Yellow R, and 1-1/2 oz. Orange E N Z.



Deep Orange.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange D C, 6-1/2 oz. Orange

E N Z, and 3-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow R.



Black.--Use 4-1/2 lb. Union Black S, 2 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow A,

5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, 3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and 4 lb.

Glauber's salt in 10 gallons dye-liquor.



The goods are treated at the boil in this bath for one hour, Italian

cloths have frequently if not always to pass through a finishing

process to give them lustre. This treatment, especially with blues and

blacks, has a tendency to affect the shades, reddening them. With some

dye the colour comes back on the goods becoming cold again, but with

others this is not the case. If desired the goods may be subjected

after dyeing to a treatment with alum or, better, bichromate of

potash. The goods after being dyed are rinsed and then passed into a

bath at a temperature of 140 deg. F., containing 3 lb. bichromate of

potash and 1-1/2 to 2 oz. sulphuric acid. After being chromed in this

for about half an hour they are well washed. This chroming thoroughly

fixes the colour on the cotton and it will not change while being

finished, either by crabbing, steaming or hot pressing.



Gold Brown.--Use 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Cutch, 6-1/2 oz. Diamine Fast

Yellow B, 1 oz. each Union Black, Naphthol Blue Black and Azo Red A.



Walnut Brown.--A fine shade is got with 1-1/4 lb. Union Black S,

1-1/4 lb. Diamine Brown M, 3-1/4 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 13 oz.

Indian Yellow G, and 1 oz. Naphthol Blue Black. After dyeing the goods

should be chromed with 3 lb. bichromate of potash and 2 oz. sulphuric

acid.



Dark Blue.--A good full shade is got with 2-1/4 lb. Union Black S,

9-1/2 oz. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, 6-1/2 oz. Alkaline Violet (p. 177)

C A, and 1/4 lb. Alkaline Blue F. Treatment in a bath of 1/2 lb. alum

and 1/2 oz. soda at 130 deg. F. will fix the colour against finishing.



Silver Grey.--A fine grey can be got from 1-3/4 oz. Diamine Black

B H, 1/2 oz. Diamine Orange B, 1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and

1/2 oz. Formyl Violet.



Navy Blue.--Use 1-1/4 lb. Union Black S, 3 lb. Diamine Black B H,

1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, 1/2 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and

2-1/2 oz. Alkaline Blue B.



Red Plum.--Use a dye-bath containing 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Violet B

and 3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B.



Dark Green.--A fine shade can be dyed in a bath containing 3 lb.

Diamine Green B and 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W.



Dark Slate.--Use 4 lb. Diamine Black H W, 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black,

and 3 oz. Azo Red A.



Sage.--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Diamine Bronze G and

1-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Dark Brown.--A fine dark shade is got from 2-1/2 lb. Diamine

Brown V, and 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Peacock Green.--Use 3-3/4 lb. Diamine Steel Blue L, 13 oz. Diamine

Fast Yellow B, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine R, and 2-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G

in a bath of 4 lb. Glauber's salt per gallon of dye-liquor.



Dark Sea Green.--Use 9 oz. Diamine Steel Blue L, 3-3/4 oz. Diamine

Fast Yellow B, 1/2 oz. Diamine Orange G, 1-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue

Black, and 3/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.



Dark Brown.--Use 1 lb. Diamine Orange B, 1 lb. Diamine Fast

Yellow B, 13-3/4 oz. Union Black S, 1 lb. Diamine Brown M, and 1/2 lb.

Indian Yellow G. Fix in an alum bath after dyeing.



Dark Stone.--Use 1/2 lb. Diamine Orange B, 3-3/4 oz. Union Black,

1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, 1-1/2 oz. Azo Red A, and 3/4 oz. Naphthol

Blue Black.



Black.--A very fine black can be got from 3-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine

Black R M, 2 lb. Union Black S, 9-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black and (p. 178)

4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, chroming after dyeing as described above.



Dark Grey.--A fine bluish, shade of grey is got from 7 oz. Diamine

Black B H, 2-1/4 oz. Diamine Orange G, 2-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black,

and 1 oz. Orange E N Z.



Dark Blue.--A fine shade is got by using 2 lb. Diamine Black B H,

1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W and 3-1/2 oz. Alkaline Blue 6 B.



Drab.--Use 3-1/2 oz. Diamine Orange B, 3/4 oz. Union Black, 1/8 oz.

Diamine Bordeaux B, 3/4 oz. Azo Red A, and 1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue

Black.



Plum.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Diamine Violet N, 9-1/2 oz. Union Black, and

1 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B.



Bright Yellow.--Use a dye-bath containing 4 lb. Thioflavine S, 2 lb.

Naphthol Yellow S, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb, acetic acid.



Pink.--Use 1/6 oz. Diamine Rose B D, 1/4 oz. Diamine Scarlet B,

1/2 oz. Rhodamine B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.



Scarlet.--A fine shade is got from 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Scarlet B,

1/2 oz. Diamine Red 5 B and 20 lb. Glauber's salt.



Orange.--Use a dye-bath containing 3-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange G,

14-1/2 oz. Tropaeoline O O, and 2-3/4 oz. Orange extra.



Sky Blue.--Use 1-1/2 oz. Diamine Sky Blue and 1-1/4 oz. Alkaline

Blue B.



Bright Blue.--A fine shade similar to that formerly known as Royal

Blue is got by using 1-1/2 lb. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, and 9-1/4 oz.

Alkaline Blue 6 B.



Maroon.--Use 3 lb. Diamine Bordeaux B, 2 lb. Diamine Violet N, and

3-1/4 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B.



Green.--A fine green similar in shade to that used for

billiard-table cloth is got from 2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 2 lb.

Diamine Steel Blue L, 14-1/2 oz. Thiocarmine R and 7-1/4 oz. Indian

Yellow G.



Gold Brown.--A fine brown is got from 3 lb. Diamine Orange B, (p. 179)

1/2 lb. Union Black, 2-1/2 oz. Diamine Brown, 3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue

Black, and 1/2 lb. Indian Yellow G.



Navy Blue.--Use 3-1/4 lb. Diamine Black B H, 1-1/2 lb. Diamine

Brilliant Blue G, and 1/2 lb. Alkaline Blue.



Fawn Drab.--A fine shade is got by dyeing in a bath containing

6-3/4 oz. Diamine Orange B, 1-3/4 lb. Union Black, 1/4 oz. Naphthol

Blue Black, 1/4 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B, and 1 oz. Azo Red A.



In all these colours the dye-baths contain Glauber's salt at the rate

of 4 lb. per 10 gallons.



Dark Brown.--2-1/2 lb. Diamine Orange B, 13 oz. Diamine Bordeaux B,

1-1/2 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 1-3/4 lb. Union Black, and 3-1/2 oz.

Naphthol Black.



Drab.--1-3/4 lb. Diamine Fast Yellow R, 3-1/4 oz. Diamine

Bordeaux B, 2-1/2 oz. Union Black, 1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and

1-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.



Dark Blue.--Use in the dye-bath 4-1/4 lb. Diamine Dark Blue B,

1-1/2 lb. Diamine Brilliant Blue G, 3/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and

5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Blue Black.--Use 3-1/4 lb. Union Black S, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black

B M, 6-1/2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black, and 1/4 lb. Formyl violet S 4 B.



Dark Walnut.--2-3/4 lb. Diamine Brown M, 1-1/2 lb. Union Black S,

and 11-1/4 oz. Indian Yellow G.



Peacock Green.--Use in the dye-bath 3-1/2 lb. Diamine Black H W,

5-1/6 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B, 1-1/2 lb. Thiocarmine R, and

1-1/6 oz. Indian Yellow G.



Slate Blue.--Use in the dye-bath 6-1/2 oz. Diamine Catechine B,

4-3/4 oz. Diamine Orange B, 2-1/2 oz. Union Black, 2-3/4 oz. Orange

E N Z, and 1-3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Dark Sage.--A good shade is dyed with 1 lb. Diamine Orange B,

6-1/2 oz. Union Black, 1-3/4 oz. Diamine Brown M, 3-1/4 oz. Azo Red A,

and 2-1/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Navy Blue.--Use 2 lb. Diamine Dark Blue B, 1-1/4 lb. Lanacyl (p. 180)

Violet B, and 7 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Bronze Green.--A good shade is dyed with 2 lb. Diamine Orange B,

5 oz. Diamine Brown N, 3/4 lb. Union Black S, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G,

and 2 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Black.--Use 2-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M and 1-1/2 lb.

Naphthylamine Black 6 B. Another recipe, 2-1/4 lb. Oxydiamine Black

B M, 1 lb. Diamine Brown M, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, and 2 oz. Naphthol

Blue Black.



Dark Brown.--Use 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M, 15-1/2 oz. Diamine

Brown M, 1-3/4 lb. Indian Yellow G, and 2-3/4 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.

Another combination, 1-1/2 lb. Oxydiamine Black B M, 1-1/2 lb. Orange

E N Z, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G, and 5 oz. Naphthol Blue Black.



Scarlet.--3 lb. Benzopurpurine 4 B, 3/4 oz. Ponceau 3 R B, and

1/2 lb. Curcumine S.



Crimson.--1/2 lb. Congo Corinth G, 2 lb. Benzopurpurine 10 B, and

1/2 lb. Curcumine S.



Bright Blue.--2 lb. Chicago Blue 6 B, 3 oz. Alkali Blue 6 B,

1-1/2 oz. Zambesi Blue R X. After dyeing, rinse and develop in a bath

of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 10 gallons water, then rinse well.



Dark Blue.--2-1/2 lb. Columbia Fast Blue 2 G, 3 oz. Sulphon

Azurine D, 3 oz. Alkali Blue 6 B. After dyeing, rinse and develop in a

bath of 8 oz. sulphuric acid in 20 gallons of water.



Orange.--9 oz. Congo Brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O, and

1-1/2 oz. Mandarine G.



Dark Green.--2 lb. Columbia Green, 1/2 lb. Sulphon Azurine D,

1/2 lb. Zambesi Blue B X, 1-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.



Black.--4 lb. Columbia Black F B, and 2 lb. Wool Black 6 B.



Pale Sage Green.--5 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 lb. Chrysophenine G,

and 1-1/2 lb. Curcumine S.



Slate.--1/2 lb. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Zambesi Blue R X, (p. 181)

1/2 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O, and 1-1/2 oz. Acid Violet 6 B.



Dark Grey.--1 lb. Columbia Black F B, 3 oz. Zambesi Black B, and

3/4 oz. Sulphon Azurine D.



Drab.--1-1/2 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1/4 oz.

Curcumine extra, and 3 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.



Brown.--5 oz. Zambesi Black D, 3/4 oz. Mandarine G extra, 1-1/2 oz.

Orange T A, and 2 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.



Nut Brown.--3/4 lb. Congo Brown G, 1/4 lb. Chicago Blue R W, and

3/4 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.



Dark Brown.--1 lb. Congo Brown G, 1-1/2 lb. Benzopurpurine 4 B,

1-1/2 lb. Zambesi Black F, and 1/2 lb. Wool Black 6 B.



Stone.--1 oz. Zambesi Black D, 1/4 oz. Mandarine G, 1/4 oz.

Curcumine extra, and 1-1/4 oz. Mikado Orange 4 R O.



Slate Green.--3 oz. Zambesi Black D, 1-1/2 oz. Guinea Green B.



Sage Brown.--1/2 lb. Zambesi Black D, 1-1/2 oz. Mandarine G extra,

3 oz. Curcumine extra, 3 oz. Acid Violet 6 B, 6 oz. Mikado Orange

4 R O, and 4-1/2 oz. Curcumine S.



Cornflower Blue.--3 oz. Chicago Blue 4 R, 1/4 lb. Zambesi Blue R X,

1/4 lb. Acid Violet 6 B, and 3/4 oz. Zambesi Brown G.



Dark Brown.--1-1/2 lb. Brilliant Orange G, 1/2 lb. Orange T A, 1 lb.

Columbia Black F B, and 1/4 lb. Wool Black 6 B.



Dark Blue.--2 lb. Chicago Blue R W, 1 lb. Zambesi Blue R X, 1/2 lb.

Columbia Black F B, 10 oz. Guinea Green B, and 1/2 lb. Guinea Violet

4 B.



The Janus dyes may be used for the dyeing of half wool union fabrics.

The best plan of working is to prepare a bath with 5 lb. of sulphate

of zinc. In this the goods are worked at the boil for five minutes,

then there is added the dyes (previously dissolved in water), and the

working continued for a quarter of an hour; then there is added 20 lb.

Glauber's salt and the working at the boil continued for one hour, (p. 182)

at the end of which time the dye-bath will be fairly well exhausted of

colour. The goods are now taken out and put into a fixing bath of

sumac or tannin, in which they are treated for fifteen minutes. To

this same bath there is next added tartar emetic and 1 lb. sulphuric

acid, and the working continued for a quarter of an hour; then the

bath is heated to 160 deg. F., when the goods are lifted, rinsed and

dried. In the recipes the quantities of dyes, sumac or tannin, and

tartar emetic only are given, the other ingredients and processes are

the same in all.



Dark Blue.--2-1/4 lb. Janus Dark Blue B, and 1/2 lb. Janus Green B,

in the dye-bath; 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the

fixing bath.



Blue Black.--3-1/2 lb Janus Black I and 1/3 lb. Janus Black I I in

the dye-bath, and 16 lb. sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the

fixing bath.



Dark Brown.--2-1/2 lb. Janus Brown B, 1 lb. Janus Black I, 3-1/2 oz.

Janus Yellow G, and 5 oz. Janus Red B in the dye-bath, with 16 lb.

sumac extract and 2 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing bath.



Drab.--1-1/2 oz. Janus Yellow R, 1/4 oz. Janus Red B, 1 oz. Janus

Blue R, and 1/4 oz. Janus Grey B B, in the dye-bath, and 4 lb. sumac

extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.



Grey.--5 oz. Janus Blue R, 3-1/4 oz. Janus Grey B, 1-1/2 oz. Janus

Yellow R, and 1/4 oz. Janus Red B in the dye-bath, with 4 lb. sumac

extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.



Nut Brown.--1 lb. Janus Brown R, 8 oz. Janus Yellow R, and 1-1/2 oz.

Janus Blue B in the dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar

emetic in the fixing-bath.



Walnut Brown.--3 lb. Janus Brown B, 1 lb. Janus Red B, 1 lb. Janus

Yellow R, and 1-1/4 oz. Janus Green B in the dye-bath, with 8 lb.

sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.



Crimson.--2-1/2 lb. Janus Red B, and 8 oz. Janus Claret Red B (p. 183)

in the dye-bath, with 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in

the fixing-bath.



Dark Green.--1-1/2 lb. Janus Green B, 1 lb. Janus Yellow R, and

8 oz. Janus Grey B in the dye-bath, with 4 lb. sumac extract and

1-1/4 lb. tartar emetic in the fixing-bath.



Chestnut Brown.--1 lb. Janus Brown R and 1 lb. Janus Yellow R in the

dye-bath, and 8 lb. sumac extract and 1 lb. tartar emetic in the

fixing-bath.



Before the introduction of the direct dyes the method usually

followed, and indeed is now to a great extent, is that known as

Cross-dyeing. The goods were woven with dyed cotton threads of the

required shade and undyed woollen threads; after weaving and cleansing

the woollen part of the fabric was dyed with acid dyes such as Acid

Magenta, Scarlet R, Acid Yellow, etc. In such methods care has to be

taken that the dyes used for dyeing the cotton are such as stand

acids, a by no means easy condition to fulfil at one time. Many of the

direct dyes are fast to acids and therefore lend themselves more or

less readily to cross-dyeing. For details of the dyes for cotton

reference may be made to the sections on dyeing with the direct

colours in the companion volume to this book on Dyeing of Cotton

Fabrics.



#Shot Effects.#--A pleasing kind of textile fabric which is now made and

is a great favourite for ladies' dress goods is where the cotton of a

mixed fabric is thrown up to form a figured design. It is possible to

dye the two fibres in different colours and so produce a variety of

shot effects. These latter are so endless that it is impossible here

to enumerate all that may be produced. It will have to suffice to lay

down the lines which may be followed to the best advantage, and then

give some recipes to illustrate the remarks that have been made. The

best plan for the production of shot effects upon union fabrics is to

take advantage of the property of certain acid dyes which dye only (p. 184)

the wool in an acid bath and of many of the direct colours which will

only dye the cotton in an alkaline bath. The process, working on these

lines, becomes as follows: The wool is first dyed in an acid bath with

the addition of Glauber's salt and bisulphate of soda or sulphuric

acid, the goods are then washed with water containing a little ammonia

to free them from the acid and afterwards dyed with the direct colour

in an alkaline bath.



Fancy or the mode shades are obtained by combining suitable

dye-stuffs.



If the cotton is to be dyed in light shades it is advantageous to dye

on the liquor at 65 deg. to 80 deg. F., with the addition of 3-1/4 oz.

Glauber's salt, and from 20 to 40 grains borax per gallon water. The

addition of an alkali is advisable in order to neutralise slight

quantities of acid which may have remained in the wool, and to prevent

the dye-stuff from dyeing the cotton too deep a shade.



Very light shades can also be done on the padding machine. The

dye-stuffs of Group (2), which have been previously enumerated, do not

stain the wool at all or only very slightly and are therefore the most

suitable. Less bright effects can be produced by simply dyeing the

goods in one bath. The wool is first dyed at the boil with the wool

dye-stuff in a neutral bath, the steam is then shut off and the cotton

dyed by adding the cotton dye-stuff to the bath and dyeing without

again heating. By passing the goods through cold water to which some

sulphuric or acetic acid is added the brightness of most effects is

greatly increased.



Gold and Green.--First bath, 1 lb. Cyanole extra, 7-1/4 oz. Acid

Green, 1-1/2 oz. Orange G G, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda; work at

the boil for one hour, then lift and rinse well. Second bath, 4 lb.

Diamine Orange G and 15 lb. Glauber's salt; work in the cold or at a

lukewarm heat. Third bath at 120 deg. F., 4 oz. Chrysoidine and 1/4 oz.

Safranine.



Black and Blue.--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol Black 3 B and (p. 185)

10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine Sky Blue and

13 lb. Glauber's salt. Third bath, 6-1/2 oz. New Methylene Blue N;

work as in the last recipe.



Green and Claret.--First bath, 3-1/2 lb. Naphthol Red C and 10 lb.

bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 2 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 1-1/4 lb.

Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Gold Brown and Blue.--First bath, 2-1/2 oz. Orange E N Z, 1-1/2 oz.

Orange G G, 1/4 oz. Cyanole extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.

Second bath, 14 oz. Diamine Sky Blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Dark Brown and Blue.--First bath, 1/2 lb. Orange G G, 1-1/2 oz.

Orange E N Z, 1-1/2 oz. Cyanole extra and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.

Second bath, 12 oz. Diamine Sky Blue F F and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Black and Green Blue.--First bath, 3 lb. Orange G G, 1 lb. Brilliant

cochineal 4 R, 1 lb. Fast Acid Green B N, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt.

Second bath, 1-3/4 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 3-1/4 lb. Thioflavine S,

and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



We may here note that in all the above recipes the second bath (for

dyeing the cotton) should be used cold or at a lukewarm heat, and as

strong as possible. It is not completely exhausted of colour, only

about one-half going on the fibre. If kept as a standing bath this

feature should be borne in mind and less dye-stuff used in the dyeing

of the second and following lots of goods.



Blue and Gold Yellow.--3 lb. Diamine Orange G, 13 oz. Naphthol

Blue G, 14-1/2 oz. Formyl Violet S 4 B, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt;

work at just under the boil.



Brown and Blue.---1 lb. Diamine Steel Blue L, 9-1/2 oz. Diamine Sky

Blue, 1 lb. Orange E N Z, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G, 1-3/4 oz. Naphthol

Blue Black and 15 lb. Glauber's salt. Work at 170 deg. to 180 deg. F.



In these two last recipes only one bath is used, all the dyes (p. 186)

being added at once. This is possible if care be taken that dye-stuffs

are used which will dye wool and not cotton from neutral baths and

dyes which dye cotton better than wool. The temperature should also be

kept below the boil and carefully regulated as the operation proceeds

and the results begin to show themselves.



Grey and Orange.--First bath, 3 oz. Orange extra, 1-1/4 lb. Cyanole

extra, 11 lb. Azo Red A, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath,

5 oz. Diamine Orange D C and 3 oz. Diamine Fast Yellow B.



Green and Red.--First bath, 2 lb. Croceine A Z and 10 lb. Glauber's

salt. Second bath, 1 lb. Diamine Sky Blue F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S,

and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Brown and Violet.--First bath, 3/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 lb. Cyanole

extra, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 5 oz. Diamine

Brilliant Blue G and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Black and Yellow.--First bath, 7 lb. Naphthol Black B, 1/2 lb. Fast

Yellow S, and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3 lb. Diamine

Fast Yellow A and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Black and Pink.--Black as above. Pink with Diamine Rose B D (see

above).



Green and Buff.--First bath, 1/4 lb. Orange extra, 3/4 oz. Fast

Yellow S and 10 lb. bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine

Sky Blue F F, 1/2 lb. Thioflavine S, and 15 lb. Glauber's salt.



Orange and Violet.--First bath, 9 oz. Orange extra and 10 lb.

bisulphate of soda. Second bath, 3/4 lb. Diamine Violet N and 10 lb.

Glauber's salt.



Black and Blue.--First bath, Naphthol Black, as given above. Second

bath, Diamine Sky Blue, as given above.



Black and Yellow.--Add first 1 lb. Wool Black 6 B and 10 lb.

Glauber's salt, then when the wool has been dyed add 2 lb. Curcumine S

to dye the cotton in the same bath.



Green and Red.--Dye the wool by using 3 lb. Guinea Green B, (p. 187)

1/4 lb. Curcumine extra, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then add to

the bath 3/4 lb. Erika B N and 3/4 lb. Congo Corinth G.



Orange and Blue.--Dye the wool first with 1-1/4 lb. Mandarine G,

2 oz. Wool Black 6 B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then the cotton with

2 lb. Columbia Blue G.



Blue and Orange.--Dye the wool first with 3/4 lb. Guinea Violet B,

3/4 lb. Guinea Green B, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; then dye the cotton

with 2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.



Green and Orange.--Dye the wool with 3 lb. Guinea Green B, 1/4 lb.

Curcumine extra and 10 lb. Glauber's salt, then dye the cotton in the

same bath with 1-1/2 lb. Mikado Orange 4 R O.





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