List Of Lichens Used By The Peasantry Of Different Countries For Wool Dyeing





SHADES OF RED, PURPLE AND ORANGE



Borrera ashney. Chutcheleera. India.



Conicularia aculeata. var. spadicea. Brown prickly

cornicularia. Canary Islands, Highland Mountains.



Evernia prunastri. Ragged hoary Lichen. Stag's horn

Lichen. Found in Scotland on trees.



Isidium corallinum. White crottle. On rocks in Scotland.



I. Westringii. Westring's Isidium. Norway and Sweden.



Lecanora tartarea. Crotal, Crottle, Corkur, Corcir,

Korkir. Found in the Scotch Highlands and Islands, growing

on rocks; used for the manufacture of Cudbear in Leith and

Glasgow.



L. parella. Light Crottle, Crabs Eye Lichen. Found in

Scotland, France and England, on rocks and trees; formerly

celebrated in the South of France in the making of the dye

called Orseille d'Auvergne.



L. haematomma. Bloody spotted lecanora, Black lecanora.

Found in Scotland on rocks and trees.



Lecidea sanguinaria. Red fruited lecidea. In Scotland, on

rocks.



Nephroma parilis. Chocolate coloured nephroma. Scotland,

on stones. Said to dye blue.



Parmelia caperata. Stone Crottle, Arcel. Found in North of

Ireland and Isle of Man, on trees. Said to dye brown, orange

lemon and yellow.



P. conspersa. Sprinkled parmelia. Found growing on rocks

in England.



P. omphalodes. Black Crottle, Cork, Corker, Crostil or

Crostal (Scotch Highlands). Arcel (Ireland). Kenkerig

(Wales). Alaforel leaf (Sweden). Found on rocks, especially

Alpine, in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Scandinavia. One of

the most extensively used dye lichens. It yields a dark

brown dye readily to boiling water, and it is easily fixed

to yarns by simple mordants. It is stated to yield a red,

crimson or purple dye.



P. saxatilis. Crottle, stane-raw, Staney-raw (Scotland).

Scrottyie (Shetland). Sten-laf, Sten-mossa (Norway and

Sweden). Found on rocks and stones in Scotland, Shetland,

and Scandinavia. In winter the Swedish peasantry wear home

made garments dyed purple by this Lichen. By the Shetlanders

it is usually collected in August, when it is considered

richest in colouring matter.



Ramalina farinacea. Mealy ramalina. On trees in England.



R. scopulorum. Ivory-like ramalina. Scotland, on maritime

rocks. A red dye.



Rocella tinctoria. Orseille. Grows in the South of France,

on the rocks by the sea.



Solorina crocea. Saffron yellow solorina. In Scotland, on

mountain summits. The colouring matter is ready formed and

abundant in the thallus.



Sticta pulmonacea. On trees.



Umbilicaria pustulata. Blistered umbilicaria. Found on

rocks in Norway and Sweden.



Urceolaria calcarea. Corkir, Limestone Urceolaria. Found

in Scotland, Western Islands, Shetland and Wales, growing on

limestone rocks.



U. cinerea. Greyish Urceolaria. In England, on rocks.



U. scruposa. Rock Urceolaria. Grows on rocks in hilly

districts in England.



Usnea barbata. Bearded Usnea. Pennsylvania and South

America. On old trees. Stated to dye yarn orange.



U. florida. Flowering Usnea. Pale greenish yellow or

reddish brown.



U. plicata. Plaited Usnea. On trees.





SHADES OF BROWN



Alectoria jubata. Horsehair Lichen, Rock hair. On fir

trees in England. Pale greenish brown.



Borrera flavicans. Yellow borrera. On trees in Germany.

Gamboge yellow.



Cetraria Islandica. Iceland moss. Iceland heaths and

hills. It yields a good brown to boiling water, but this dye

appears only to have been made available in Iceland.



Cetraria juniperina. En-mossa. On trees in Scandinavia.



Evernia flavicans. Wolf's-bane evernia. On trees in

Scandinavia. Gamboge yellow.



Gyrophora cylindrica. Cylindrical gyrophora. On rocks in

Iceland. Greenish brown. Also G. deusta.



G. deusta. Scorched-looking gyrophora. On rocks in

Scandinavia. Linnaeus states that it furnishes a paint

called "Tousch", much used in Sweden.



Lecanora candelaria. Ljus massa. On trees in Sweden.



Lecidea atro-virens. Map lichen. On rocks, Scandinavia.



Lepraria chlorina. Brimstone coloured lepraria.

Scandinavia, on rocks.



L. Iolithus. Viol-massa. Sweden, on stones. Gives stones

the appearance of blood stains.



Parmelia omphalodes. In Scandinavia and Scotland.

Withering asserts it yields a purple dye, paler, but more

permanent, than orchil; which is prepared in Iceland by

steeping in stale lye, adding a little salt and making it up

into balls with lime.



P. parietina. Common yellow wall lichen, Wag-massla

Wag-laf. England and Sweden, on trees, rocks, walls,

palings. Used to dye Easter eggs. Used in Sweden for wool

dyeing.



P. physoides. Dark crottle, Bjork-laf. Found in Sweden,

Scotland and Scandinavia, on rocks and trees.



Sticta pulmonacea. Oak lung, Lungwort, Aikraw Hazelraw,

Oak-rag, Hazel crottle, Rags. Found on trees in England,

Scotland, North of Ireland, Scandinavia. It dyes wool orange

and is said to have been used by the Herefordshire peasantry

to dye stockings brown. Some species yield beautiful saffron

or gamboge coloured dyes, e.g. S. flava crocata, aurata.



S. scrobiculata. Aik-raw, Oak rag. Found on trees in

Scotland and England.





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