Some of the most useful dyes and the least known are to be found among the Lichens. They seem to have been used among peasant dyers from remote ages, but apparently none of the great French dyers used them, nor are they mentioned in any of the old
The Zinc-lime Indigo Vat. It will be necessary to explain these words--Indigo blue is insoluble and cannot be used for dyeing. If however it is "reduced" or changed to indigo white, it has, while it is in this form, an affinity for vegetable and ani
The bark and twigs of alder are used for dyeing brown and black. For 1 lb. wool use 1 lb. alder bark. Boil the wool with it for 2 hours, when it should be a dull reddish brown. Add 1/2 oz. copper as for every pound of wool for black.
This is the most generally used of all the mordants, and has been known as such from early times in many parts of the world. For most colours a certain proportion of cream of tartar should be added to the alum bath as it helps to brighten the ultima
=Testing Textile Fabrics.= This is an age of adulteration, and next to food there is probably no commodity that is adulterated as much as the clothing we wear. Large purchasers of textile fabrics and various administrative bodies, such as army clo
=Silk Cotton.= On account of the high price of silk various attempts have been made to find satisfactory substitutes for it. There are certain seed coverings of plants that contain very fine hair-like fibers with a luster almost equal to silk, but
The roots and bark of Berberis Vulgaris is used principally for silk dyeing, without a mordant. The silk is worked at 50 deg. to 60 deg.C. in a solution of the dye wood slightly acidified with sulphuric, acetic or tartaric acid. For dark shades mord