Cotton Fabrics

=Albatross.= Cotton albatross cloth is a fabric made in imitation of a

worsted fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy surface. The name is

taken from the bird whose downy breast the finish of the fabric

resembles. The warp is usually 28s cotton, the filling 36s cotton. It

is a plain weave. Filling and warp count 48 picks per inch. The goods

are finished by being burled, sheared, washed, singed, dyed, rinsed,

dried, a
d pressed, care being taken not to press too hard. Sometimes

singeing is omitted. Albatross cloth is generally in white, black, or

solid colors. It is not often printed. It is light in weight, and is

used for dress goods.

=Awning.= A cotton cloth used as a cover to shelter from sun rays.

=Batiste.= Batiste is of French origin, and is a light, transparent

cloth, made from a fine quality of combed cotton yarn. There is a

gradual variation in quality ranging from a comparatively coarse to a

very fine fabric. The variety of qualities will suggest some idea of

the utility of the fabric. Its uses are even more varied than are the

qualities. The finer grades are used for dress goods and all kinds of

lingerie for summer wear, etc., while the cheaper grades are used for

linings in washable and unwashable shirt waists. Batiste is woven in

the gray, that is, with yarn direct from the spinning frame, with the

exception that the warp yarn is well sized, in order to stand better

the strain to which it is subjected during the weaving process.

=Bourrette.= A light weight, single cloth fabric, with two-ply cotton

warp and wool or a combination of cotton and shoddy filling, made with

the plain weave and in appearance a semi-rough-faced woolen fabric

with fancy effects in twist scattered about it. It is used principally

for ladies' fall suitings.

=Bedford Cord.= This is one of the most popular types of fabrics, the

distinguishing effect being a line or cord running lengthwise of the

cloth, the cord being more or less prominent. The cloth is made of

cotton, or sometimes of worsted. The face effect of the Bedford cord

is generally plain. Occasionally twill-faced cords are used. The cords

vary in width from about one twentieth to one quarter of an inch. To

get extra weight without altering the appearance of the face, extra

warp yarns, termed wadding ends, are inserted between the face weave

and the filling, floating at the back of the rib. When these wadding

ends are coarse, they give a pronounced rounded appearance to the

cord. They run from 88 to 156 picks to an inch.

=Buckram.= Buckram is derived from Bokhara. It may be described as a

coarse, glue-sized fabric, and is made of cotton, hemp, linen, or

cotton and hair (coarse) yarns, usually from 10s to 25s. Made of a

double cloth warp, 22s cotton, 34 picks to the inch, for the face or

top fabric 1/12's[17]; weight from loom 2.22 ozs. per yard. Bottom

fabric 1/12's cotton; filling 1/16's cotton; 12 picks to the inch.

Weight per yard, 1.8 ounces. These fabrics depend a great deal on the

finishing. The men's wear requires less sizing on account of the hair

it contains. The goods are piece dyed. Buckram is used principally for

stiffening garments, and to give them shape or form. It is placed

between the lining and the surface cloth of the garment in particular

parts, such as the lapels, etc. It is used in the millinery trade, and

is made into hats. Millinery buckram is sized two or three times.

=Calico= takes its name from Calicut, a city in India, where cloth was

first printed. The majority of inexpensive cotton fabrics are

constructed on the one up, one down system, or plain weave. Calico is

no exception to this rule. The printed designs on calicoes may be

somewhat elaborate or they may be simple geometrical figures. In

order, however, to comply with the true principles of art, such

fabrics as calicoes should have but simple geometrical figures for

their ornamental features. New styles and combinations of colors are

produced every month and faster and lighter color printed each season.

Most of the designs for calicoes and cotton cloth printing are made in

Paris. At present the steam styles are most prominent; they are the

fastest and lightest to be obtained. Calico is a printed cloth, the

printing being done by a printing machine which has a rotating

impression cylinder on which the design has been stamped or cut out.

The cloth in passing through the machine comes in contact with the

impression cylinder. The cylinder revolving in a color trough takes up

the color and leaves the impression of the design on the cloth.

Calicoes may be seen in almost any color. The printing machine is

capable of printing several colors in one design. Calicoes, however,

are usually in two colors, that is, one color for ground and the other

for figure. The ground color in most cases is effected by dyeing the

cloth in some solid color. After the cloth is dyed the design is

printed on it. The cloth, after it comes from the loom, is singed and

bleached, then sheared and brushed to take away all the lint, and then

sent to the dye house. The first process there is to boil it, after

which it is immersed in the dye tub. Calicoes are usually given what

may be termed a "cheap cotton dye." By "cheap cotton dye" is meant

that the colors are not fast, but will run or fade when subjected to

water. After the fabric is dyed, it is given to the printer, who

ornaments the face of the cloth with some geometrical design; then it

is practically ready for the merchant. After printing, the cloth is

dried and steamed to fix the color, afterwards soaped, washed,

finished, and folded. The printing machine turns out about 400 to 800

fifty-yard pieces a day. Calico is used for inexpensive dresses,

shirtwaists, wrappers, etc.

=Cambric.= Cambric is a heavy, glazed cotton fabric with a smooth

finish. It was first made in Cambrai, France. It has a plain weave

and a width of thirty-six inches. Cambrics are dyed in a jig machine.

After dyeing they are run through a mangle containing the sizing

substance, then dried, dampened, and run through a calender machine.

The glossy effect is obtained in this last finishing process. Cambric

is used for shirtwaists, dress goods, etc. The finer grades are made

from hard twisted cotton of good quality.

=Canvas.= This is a term applied to heavy, plain weave cloths made

with ply cotton yarn. They are used for mail bags, covering for boats,


=Chambray.= Chambray is a staple fabric of many years standing, being

next in rank among cotton goods after the better grade of gingham.

Chambray is a light-weight single cloth fabric that is always woven

with a plain weave, and always has a white selvedge. In effect it is a

cloth having but one color in the warp, and woven with a white

filling, this combination producing a solid color effect, the white

filling reducing any harshness of warp color in the cloth. It is

composed of one warp and one filling, either all cotton, cotton and

silk, or all silk. It is twenty-seven to thirty inches in width and

single 30s cotton warp to single 60s silk, the count of yarn being

governed by the weight per yard desired. The weight per finished yard

is two to three and one-half ounces. Good colors for the warp are navy

blue, dark brown, lavender, black, nile green, etc. When made of

cotton warp and filling the fabric receives a regular gingham finish.

The loom width can be restored by tentering or running the goods over

a machine fitted underneath with a series of coils of steam pipe. The

top of this machine is fitted with an endless chain with a row of

steel needles standing erect upon its face. Chains are adjusted to the

width desired, and as the machine runs, both selvedges are caught by

the needles and the cloth stretched to the required width.

=Cheese Cloth.= This is a thin cotton fabric of light weight and low

counts of yarn, which ranks among the cheapest in cotton goods. It is

used for innumerable purposes. The bleached fabric is used for

wrapping cheese and butter after they are pressed. It is also much in

demand for bunting for festival occasions, light curtains, masquerade

dresses, etc. When used for bunting, draperies, and the like it is

usually in colors, red, blue, cream, and yellow seeming to have the

greatest demand. The weave is one and one or plain weave.

=Chine.= Sometimes applied to glace silk, or cotton two-toned effects.

The name is French, meaning woven so as to have a mottled effect.

=Chintz.= Printed cotton cloth, with large, many-colored designs, used

for furniture covering. The Hindoo wears it as a body covering. Chintz

is the Hindoo word meaning variegated.

=Cotton Flannel.= Napped cotton flannel. Made first for trade in

Canton, China.

=Crash.= A plain fabric for outing suits, towels, etc.

=Crepe.= A fine, thin fabric of open texture made of cotton.

=Crepon.= Large designs in figured crepe. The name applies to the

crispiness of the finish and is from the French word creper, to make


=Cretonne.= Heavy cotton cloth printed in large designs, for drapery

and furniture use. Cretonne was a Frenchman who first made the cloth.

=Crinoline.= Crinoline is a fabric composed of cotton warp, horsehair

filling, or all cotton yarns. It is sold in varying widths, and is

used by tailors and dress-makers in stiffening clothing. It is a cheap

cloth of low texture and simple construction, the distinguishing

feature being the stiff finish with either a dull or highly glazed

face on the cloth.

=Damask.= A cloth of silk and cotton, silk and linen, silk and wool,

or all linen in flowered or geometrical designs for drapery or table

covering. The weaves used are mostly twills and sateens. It takes its

name from Damascus, where it was first made.

=Denim.= This is a strong fabric usually made with a two up and one

down twill. It is used for overalls, furniture covering, and floor


=Diaper.= A figured cotton or linen fabric, which gets its name from

the Greek diapron, meaning figured. It is generally of good quality

as it is subject to excessive washing.

=Dimity.= A light-weight cotton fabric, the distinguishing feature of

which is the cords or ribs running warpwise through the cloth, and

produced by doubling the warp threads in either heddle or reed in

sufficient quantity to form the rib desired. The name is from a Greek

word meaning two-threaded. Dimity is a ladies' summer dress fabric,

and is made of regular cotton yarn, from 1/60's to the finest counts

in both warp and filling. It is made in both white and colors, solid

white being used in the most expensive grades. Colors are often

printed upon the face of the fabric after it has been woven in the


=Domet.= This cloth is napped similar to a cotton flannel. It is used

for shirts, pajamas, etc., and made with bright colored stripes and

check patterns. The name is from domestic, home made.

=Duck.= Duck is a heavy single cloth fabric made of coarse two-ply

yarn and of a plain weave. It derives its name from its resemblance to

a duck's skin. It is of a lighter weight than canvas. In finishing

duck is taken from the loom and washed and sized, then dried and

pressed. If a fancy solid color is desired the goods are dyed in the

piece after the first washing. Duck is used in the manufacture of

sails, tents, car curtains, and for any purpose requiring a good

water-tight fabric, which will withstand rough usage. Duck has a stiff

hard feel, and excellent wearing qualities. The lighter weights are

used for ladies' shirtwaist suits, men's white trousers, etc.

=Drill.= A cotton fabric of medium weight generally made with the two

up and one down twill. It is extensively used for shoe linings.

=Eolienne= is the name applied to a fine dress fabric characterized by

having the filling of a much coarser count than the warp, thus

producing a corded effect across the breadth of the goods. This class

of goods is made up of a raw silk warp and either cotton or worsted

filling, with the warp ends per inch greatly in excess of picks per

inch. The goods are made up in gray, then dyed in the piece in any

color the trade desires. The darker shades find most favor for fall

and winter use, while the lighter shades are preferred for summer

wear. The width is from twenty-seven to fifty inches, and the price

per yard varies from 85 cents to $1.25.

=Etamine.= An etamine is a thin, glossy fabric used principally for

women's dress goods. Being a common and popular material for summer

wear, it is usually made as a piece-dyed fabric. A good reason for

making it piece-dyed is that this method is much cheaper than if the

yarn is dyed previous to the weaving. Etamines were originally made

with worsted yarns, which of course are more expensive; however, if a

good quality of cotton is used, there is little difference in

appearance between worsted and cotton etamine. The difference is

chiefly in the wearing quality, worsted being more durable. The

principal characteristic of an etamine is a crisp, glossy, and open


=Flannelette= is a narrow, light-weight fabric composed of all cotton

yarn, the filling being soft spun to permit of the raising of a very

slight nap on the back of the goods. The cloth is woven with bleached

yarn (warp and filling), the color effects being afterwards printed

upon the face of the goods by the printing machine. Flannelette is

made with simple one or two colored stripe patterns, either black and

white or indigo blue and white, and in imitation of a Jacquard

pattern. The finished fabrics are sold by the retailer at from eight

cents to twelve and one-half cents per yard, are twenty-seven inches

wide, and are used very extensively in the manufacture of ladies'

wrappers, kimonos, etc., for house wear.

=Fustian.= A corded fabric made on the order of corduroy and used in

England for trouserings, etc. First made at Fustat, a town on the

Nile, near Cairo. Velveteen and cordings in the lower, coarser grades

were sometimes called Fustian.

=Galatea Cloth.= Galatea cloth has been somewhat in demand in recent

years by women requiring serviceable and neat-appearing cotton fabrics

at a medium price. It is usually finished twenty-seven inches wide and

retails at fourteen cents to twenty cents per yard. It is shown in

plain colors as well as in figures, and in dotted and striped designs

on white and colored grounds. The patterns are obtained by printing.

Some manufacturers have found that they can take a standard type of

fabric and extend its use by varying the process of finishing. The

base of the cloth--that is, the fabric previous to dyeing or printing

or bleaching--is nothing more than an ordinary 5-end warp sateen of

fair quality.

=Gauze.= A veiling net, made in Gaza in Palestine.

=Gingham.= Gingham is a single cloth composed entirely of cotton, and

always woven with a plain weave. It is yarn-dyed in stripes or checks

and was originally of Indian make. It is the most widely known fabric

on the market and is made in various grades, having from fifty to

seventy-six ends per inch in the reed, and of 1/26's to 1/40's cotton

yarns in both warp and filling. It is a wash fabric, made in both

check and plaid patterns into which an almost unlimited variety of

color combinations are introduced. Ginghams are made with from two

colors, warp and filling, to eight colors in warp and six in filling.

Ginghams are used most commonly in the manufacture of ladies' and

children's summer dresses and aprons.

=Italian Cloth= is a light, glossy fabric made from cotton and

worsted, cotton and wool, cotton and mohair, and all cotton. It is

used for linings for the heavier styles of ladies' dresses, also for

underskirts, fancy pillow backs, etc. The cloth is woven in the gray

undyed yarns. In the finer grades the warp is sized so as to

facilitate the weaving process.

=Jaconet.= A thin cotton fabric, heavier than cambric. If properly

made one side is glazed. Derived from the French word jaconas.

=Khaki.= Twilled cotton cloth of a brown dust color, first used for

men's clothing in India. The word khaki is Indian for earth, or


=Lawn.= Lawn is a light-weight single cloth wash fabric, weighing from

one and one fourth to two and one fourth ounces per yard, and in

widths from thirty-six to forty inches finished. It is composed of all

cotton yarns (bleached) from 1/40's to 1/100's, and is always woven

with a plain weave, one up, one down. The name is from Laon, a place

near Rheims, France, where lawn was extensively made. Plain lawn is

made of solid white or bleached yarn in both warp and filling. The

fancier grades, or those having color effects, are produced by

printing vines, floral stripes, small flowers, etc., in bright colors

in scattered effects on the face of the goods. The patterns are always

printed, never woven. Lawn, when finished, should have a soft, smooth

feel. Therefore the finishing process includes brushing, very light

starching or sizing, then calendering or pressing. Lawns have to be

handled carefully in the bleaching process, starched with an ordinary

starch mangle (the sizing containing a little blueing), finished on

the Stenter machine, and dried with hot air. Lawns are often tinted

light shades of blue, pink, cream, pearl, green, and other light

tints, with the direct colors added to the starch. It is used

principally in the manufacture of ladies' and children's summer

dresses, sash curtains, etc.

=Lingerie.= This relates to all sorts of ladies' and children's

undergarments, such as skirts, underskirts, infants' short dresses,

chemises, night robes, drawers, corset covers, etc.

=Linon= is a fine, closely woven plain fabric, well known for its

excellent wearing and washing qualities. It is made from combed cotton

yarns of long-stapled stocks to resemble as closely as possible fine

linen fabrics. The cloth structure is firmly made in the loom.

=Long Cloth= is a fine cotton fabric of superior quality, made with a

fine grade of cotton yarn of medium twist. Originally the fabric was

manufactured in England, and subsequently imitated in the United

States. The fabric is used for infants' long dresses, from which it

derives its name, and for lingerie. Long cloth to some extent

resembles batiste, fine muslins, India linen, and cambric. It is

distinguished from these fabrics by the closeness of its weave, and

when finished the fabric possesses a whiter appearance, due to the

closeness of the weave and the soft twist of the yarn. It is not used

as a dress fabric, chiefly because of its finished appearance, which

is similar in all respects to fabrics which we have been accustomed to

see used solely for lingerie, nightgowns, etc.

=Madras= is a light-weight single cloth fabric, composed of all cotton

or cotton and silk, and has excellent wearing qualities. It was at

first a light-colored checked or striped plain-faced cotton-silk

fabric, made in Madras, India, for sailors' head-dress. It is

twenty-seven inches wide, and is made of varying grades, weighing from

two to three ounces per yard, and is used at all seasons of the year.

It is used by ladies for summer skirts, shirtwaists, suits, etc., and

by men in shirts. It is known by the white and colored narrow-stripe

warp effects, and is made of cotton yarns ranging from 1/26 to 1/80

warp and filling, and from 50 to 100 or more ends per inch. The

utility of madras for nearly all classes of people permits the

greatest scope in creating both harmonious and contrasting color and

weave combinations.

The colors most in demand in this fabric are rich and delicate shades

of blue, rose, green, linen, tan, lavender, and bright red; for

prominent hair-line effects black, navy blue, dark green, royal blue,

and cherry red. Good fast color is necessary as it is a wash fabric.

If inferior colors are used, they will surely spread during the

finishing processes, and will cause a clouded stripe where a distinct

one was intended.

=Moreen.= Heavy mohair, cotton, or silk and cotton cloth, with worsted

or moire face. The making of moreen is interesting. The undyed cloth

is placed in a trough in as many layers as will take the finish. This

finish is imparted to the cloth by placing between the layers sheets

of manila paper; the contents of the trough are then saturated with

water; a heavy weighted roller is then passed over the wetted paper

and cloth, the movement of the roller giving the cloth a watered face.

It can then be dyed and refinished. The design or marking of moreen is

different on every piece. Moreen was at first made for upholstery and

drapery use. It was found to give a rustling sound similar to silk, so

was taken up for underskirts. The name is from the French moire,

meaning watering.

=Mull.= A soft cotton muslin of fine quality, made first in India,

later in Switzerland. The name in Hindoo is mal, meaning soft,


=Mummy.= A plain weave of flax or linen yarn. Originally the winding

cloth of the Egyptian mummified dead.

=Muslin.= A fine cotton cloth of plain weave originally made in Mosul,

a city on the banks of the Tigris, in Asia.

=Nainsook.= Nainsook is a light cotton fabric utilized for various

purposes, such as infants' clothes, women's dress goods, lingerie,

half curtains, etc. The striped and plaid nainsook are used for the

same purposes. When the fabric is required for lingerie and infants'

clothes the English fabric is selected because of its softness. When

intended for dress or curtain fabric, the French-finished fabric is

chosen. The latter finish consists of slightly stiffening and

calendering the cloth. The fabric may be distinguished from fine

lawns, fine batiste, and fine cambric by the fact that it has not as

firm construction or as much body, and the finish is not as smooth or

as stiff, but inclines to softness, as the fabric has not the body to

retain the finishing material.

=Organdie.= An organdie may be defined as a fine, translucent muslin

used exclusively for dress goods. The fabric is made in a variety of

qualities as regards the counts of yarn used, and in a variety of

widths ranging from eighteen to sixty inches. The plain organdie is

popular in pure white, although considerable quantities are dyed in

the solid colors, pale blue, pink, etc., while the figured organdies

are usually bleached pure white, then printed with small floral

designs. The printed design is in from two to four colors, and in

delicate shades in conformity with the material. Organdie considered

in relation to cost as wearing material is rather expensive. The

reason for this is that it has a finish peculiar to itself, so that

when washed it does not have the same appearance as before. It loses

its crisp feeling altogether.

=Osnaburg.= A coarse cloth of flax and tow, made in America of cotton,

in checks or plaids, and used for furniture covering and mattress

making. The town of Osnaburg, in Germany, made the fabric first.

=Percale.= Percale is a closely woven fabric made with a good quality

of cotton yarn. The finer qualities are used for handkerchiefs,

aprons, etc., and when used for these purposes are not printed, but

bleached after the fabric comes from the loom. Percale is chiefly used

for dress fabrics, and when used for this purpose is generally printed

on one side with geometrical figures, generally black, although other

colors may be seen. The fabric is bleached before it is subjected to

the printing operations.

=Percaline.= Percaline is a highly finished and dressed percale. The

first process to which the cloth is subjected is to boil it off, that

is, to soak it in boiling water so as to relieve it from foreign

matter that it may have gathered during the weaving, and at the same

time to prepare it for dyeing. After dyeing it is sized to stiffen it,

and also to increase the gloss on the cloth. After sizing it is ready

for the calender. In order to give it the highest gloss the cloth is

doubled lengthwise or the pieces are put together back to back, and as

it passes through the rolls it is wet by steam, the rolls being well

heated and tightly set together. Percaline is used chiefly for

feminine wearing apparel, principally for linings, petticoats, etc.

These purposes require that the cloth shall be solid color, the darker

colors being preferred, as blue, green, and black. Sometimes it is

seen in lighter shades of brown and tan. The most attention is given

to the finishing process.

=Pique.= Pique is a heavy cotton material woven in corded or figured

effects. The goods are used for such purposes as ladies' tailor-made

suits, vestings, shirt fronts, cravats, bedspreads, and the like. It

was originally woven in diamond-shaped designs to imitate quilting.

The name is French for quilting. The plainest and most common fabrics

of pique are those in which the pattern consists of straight cords

extending across the cloth in the direction of the weft. In the

construction of these fabrics, both a face and back warp are required,

and the cords are produced by all the back warp threads being raised

at intervals of six, eight, or more picks over two or more picks of

the face cloth, which has a tendency to draw down on the surface of

the fabric. The goods are always woven white and no colors are ever

used. The face warp threads are generally finer than the back warp

threads, and are in the proportion of two threads for the face and one

thread for the back. On the heavier and better grades of pique coarse

picks called wadding are used to increase the weight, and also to give

more prominence to the cord effect. They are introduced between the

face and back cloths. In the lightest and cheapest grades neither any

wadding nor back picks are used. In this case the back warp threads

float on the back of the fabric except when raising over the face

picks to form the cord. In the figured pique the binding of the back

warp threads into the face cloth is not done in straight lines as in

plain pique, but the binding points are introduced so as to form

figures. These fabrics are woven in the white, and the figures are

purely the result of binding the face and back cloths together.

=Poplin.= Poplin or popeline is a name given to a class of goods

distinguished by a rib or cord effect running width way of the piece.

It referred originally to a fabric having a silk warp and a figure of

wool filling heavier than the warp. At the present time it refers more

to a ribbed fabric than to one made from any particular combination of

materials. Cotton poplin is usually made with a plain weave, the rep

effect being obtained either by using a fine warp as compared with the

filling, or a large number of ends as compared with picks per inch on

both. Irish poplin is a light-weight variety of poplin, sometimes

called single poplin, and is celebrated for its uniformly fine and

excellent wearing qualities. It is principally made in Dublin.

=Plumetis.= Sheer cotton or woolen cloth having raised dots or figures

in relief on plain ground. The design shows a feathery effect, as in

embroidery tambour. The name is French for this kind of embroidery,

and is derived from plume, French for feather.

=Rep.= A fabric having a surface of a cord-like appearance. The name

is probably corrupted from rib. It is used in making shirtwaists and


=Sateen.= Twilled cotton cloth of light weight, finished to imitate

silk satin. There are two kinds, viz., warp sateen and filling sateen.

=Scrim.= Open mesh weave of cotton or linen for curtains and linings.

The name is from scrimp, referring to economy in weaving.

=Silesia= is a light-weight single cloth fabric, having a rather high

texture, and weighing about three ounces per yard. It is composed of

all cotton yarn, and is used principally as a lining for ladies' and

men's clothing. Silesia is woven of yarn in the gray state, and is

dyed in the piece in such colors as black, dark blue, brown, drab,

slate, steel, etc. An important feature is the highly glazed or

polished face of the goods, which is due to the action of the heated

roller in the calendering machine upon the sizing.

=Souffle.= The largest designs of crepon show a raised or puffed

appearance. Souffle is from the French and means puffed.

=Swiss.= From Switzerland, where the plain Swiss net and figured

cambric is a specialty in the St. Gall district.

=Tape.= Tape is a narrow fabric composed either of cotton or linen

yarns in warp and filling, and usually made with a point or broken

twill weave, the break in the weave occurring in the center of the

tape, and the twill lines running in a right- and left-hand direction.

It is used as a trimming in the manufacture of clothing, also as a

binding in innumerable cases, and is sold by the roll, each roll

containing a certain number of yards. It is made of all bleached and

of regular yarns about 1/26's to 1/30's and 1/40's cotton.

=Tarletan.= An open mesh of coarse cotton, used mostly in fruit

packing, sometimes for dress and drapery. The name is from

tarlantanna, Milanese for coarse weave of linen and wool.

=Terry Cloth or Turkish Toweling= is a cotton pile fabric. It is woven

in such a way as to permit the forming of a series of loops on each

side of the cloth in regular order. After leaving the loom each piece

is laid separately in the bleaching kier. Then the goods are dried on

a tenter frame, given a light starching to add weight, run through a

rubber rolled mangle and again dried on a tenter frame. This cloth is

used in the manufacture of towels, Turkish bath robes, etc. Turkish

toweling is the original terry. The name is from the French tirer,

to draw or pull.

=Zephyr Gingham= is the finest grade of gingham made and is a

light-weight cotton fabric, composed of 1/40's to 1/60's cotton warp

and filling yarns. It is woven with either the plain weave or a small

all-over dobby effect. It is made in attractive patterns by using good

fast colors in warp and filling, and as a cloth has excellent wearing