The green shell of the walnut fruit and the root are used for dyeing

brown. The husks to be used for dyeing must be collected green and

fresh, then covered with water and kept from the light to prevent them

oxidizing. In the walnut tree there is an astringent colourless

substance which gives a greenish yellow dye. This has the property of

absorbing oxygen from the air and turning dark brown. It is only the

unoxidized p
le greenish stuff that can act as the dye, the dark brown

itself has no affinity for the wool. Acids should be added to the dye

bath to prevent oxidization. Without a mordant the colour is quite

fast, but if the wool is mordanted with alum a brighter and richer

colour is got. When used they are boiled in water for 1/4 hour, then

the wool is entered and boiled till the colour is obtained. Long

boiling is not good as it makes the wool harsh. It is much used as a

"saddening" agent; that is, for darkening other colours.

"The best and most enduring blacks were done with this

simple dye stuff, the goods being first dyed in the indigo

or woad vat till they were a very dark blue, and then

browned into black by means of the walnut root."--William


PEAT SOOT gives a good shade of brown to wool. Boil the wool for 1 to

2 hours with peat soot. Careful washing is required in several changes

of water. It is used sometimes for producing a hazel colour, after the

wool has been dyed with weld and madder.

OAK BARK. Mordant with alum and dye in a decoction of oak bark.

ONION SKINS. (Brown.) Mordant the wool with alum. Drying two or three

times in between makes the colour more durable. Dry. Wash. Boil a

quantity of onion skins, and cool; then put in wool and boil lightly

for 1/2 an hour to 1 hour; then keep warm for a while. Wring out and


BLACK. Mordant with 3% Bichromate of Potash for 45 minutes. Dye with 1

oz. Hematin crystals, 3/4 oz. madder, 1/2 oz. Persian berries. After

boiling for 1 hour remove wool and add 1/4 oz. cream of tartar, 1 oz.

cochineal, 3/4 oz. iron, 1/2 oz. copper sulphate. Return wool and boil

again for 1/2 hour. Wash in soap.