Woolen And Worsted Fabrics

=Albatross.= A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted filling; of

open texture and fancy weaves.

=Alpaca.= A thin fabric of close texture made from the fibers of an

animal of the llama species; mixed with silk or with cotton. It is

usually woven with cotton warp and mohair filling. Imitations of all

cotton are manufactured and sold under this name.

=Corded Alpaca.= Corded weave, lengthwise
of the piece, cotton warp

alpaca filling; one of the first products of the American loom.

=Angora.= The fiber of this goat is commercially known as mohair. The

skins are largely used in the making of children's muffs, for the

scalps of dolls, and for trimming coats and capes. Carriage robes also

claim a good share of the skins; the hair, being nearly one foot in

length, makes them beautiful and serviceable. The fiber enters largely

into that class of goods known as Astrakhan, Crepons, Plushes,

Brilliantines, Zibelines, fine Cashmeres, and many other fabrics

usually sold as all wool or worsted, according to the mode of

preparing the stock before spinning into yarn. It is found in the

finest of silk and worsted fabrics for ladies' wear, also in linings,

mittens, and fine cloaking and overcoating. It is noted especially for

its water repelling qualities, its beauty, and high luster; and not so

much for its warmth-retaining properties, for which wool stands


=Astrakhan.= A fabric manufactured from Astrakhan fiber; of a curly,

wavy surface applied to a curly faced cloth resembling Astrakhan


=Bandanna.= From the Indian bandanna, to bind or tie. In dyeing, the

cloth is tied in knots when dipped, and thus has a clouded effect.

=Beaver.= A heavy cloth manufactured of fine wool, with a finish on

the surface to resemble the fur of the animal by that name.

=Fur Beaver.= Similar in many respects to Beaver, but having on its

surface a long, dense nap, in imitation of the fur of the Beaver. Used

for overcoats, cloaks, and capes.

=Bedford Cord.= A fine woolen fabric, with fine recesses running with

the piece, and extensively used for ladies' dress goods. An all wool

cloth of close texture for gentlemen's clothing. The recesses may also

be made with fine cotton yarn hidden in the wool filling.

=Beige.= Cloth of undyed or natural wool. The name is the French word

for "natural."

=Bindings.= A species of narrow fabric of silk, worsted or cotton, for

binding the edges of garments, the bottom of dress skirts, etc.

=Bombazine.= A twilled fabric of which the warp is silk and the

filling is worsted.

=Bottany.= A term applied to worsted yarns made from bottany wool. It

is considered the finest of all worsted yarns, and is used for fine

fabrics of close texture.

=Boucle.= Curled hair or wool woven in any cloth in such a way as to

show the curl makes boucle. The word is French for curl.

=Broadcloth.= Broadcloth is a soft, closely woven material with a

satin finish. The best qualities are called satin broadcloth.

The origin of broadcloth dates back to early times, the first

historical mention of it being made in 1641. In America, among the

first products manufactured by the colonial woolen mills were black

and colored broadcloths, and these (with satinets) formed the

distinctive character of American woolen fabrics at that time. They

were honestly made of pure, fine-fibered Saxony wool, and sold as high

as $6.50 per yard.

The warp and filling are made of carded wool so that the web (cloth)

will shrink or full evenly. The stock is generally dyed in the raw

state when used for men's wear. When taken from the loom it does not

have the smooth, lustrous appearance which is its distinctive feature.

It is rough and dull colored, with the threads showing plainly. To

improve its appearance it is first subjected to the action of the

fulling mill, with the result that the fibers of the warp and weft

become entangled to such an extent that the cloth never unravels. Then

the cloth is slightly napped and sheared down close, in order to

produce a smooth, even surface. Next it is successively wetted,

steamed, calendered, and hot pressed for the purpose of bringing out

the luster. It is commonly twill woven, but is sometimes plain,

finished with a slightly napped and lustrous face. It must have a

bright, beaver finish, and be close and felty in the weave.

The broadcloth used for women's clothing is of a lighter weight and is

generally piece dyed. It is used for ladies' suits, coats, and

gentlemen's evening dress suits, frock coats, and tuxedos. It is

expensive; prices range from $1.75 to $3.50 per yard in ladies'

broadcloth, and higher for men. The price depends on the quality of

wool used, and uniformity of the nap and perfection of the finish.

=Bunting.= A plain even thread weave of mohair, wool, or worsted, used

mostly for making flags. The name is from German, bunt, meaning

variegated or gay colored.

=Caniche.= A name given to curled wool fabric showing the effect of

the coat of the caniche, a French dog.

=Cashmere.= A cloth made from the hair of the Cashmere goat. The face

of the fabric is twilled, the twills being uneven and irregular

because of the unevenness of the yarn. Cashmere yarn was first hand

spun. The goats are grown for their wool in the vale of Cashmere in

the Himalaya Mountains.

=All Wool Cashmere.= As no material by this name exists there can be

no definition. When the term is used in defining a fabric, it is a

delusion and a snare.

=Cashmere Double.= A cloth having Cashmere twill on one side or face

and poplin cord on the reverse.

=Cassimere.= The name is a variation of Cashmere. Cassimere, when

properly made, is of Cashmere wool. Usually a twill weave.

=Castor.= Same as beaver, of a light weight.

=Challis.= (Also spelled challie.) A name given to a superior dress

fabric of silk and wool first manufactured at Norwich, England, in

1832. In texture the original material was soft, thin, fine, and

finished without gloss. When first introduced it ranked among the best

and most elegant silk and wool textures manufactured. It was composed

of fine materials, and instead of giving it a glossy surface, such as

is usually produced from silk and fine wool, the object was to make it

without luster. The name is now applied to an extremely light weight

summer dress fabric, composed of either cotton or wool, or a mixture

of these fabrics. In structure it is both plain woven and figured, the

ornamental patterns being produced either in the loom or yarn, dyed or

printed. It is not sized. All wool challis does not differ essentially

from the old-fashioned muslin delaine. Most challis patterns are

copied from the French silks, and this accounts in part for their

tasteful designs and artistic effects. French challis is a material

similar to the above, though usually characterized by a more glossy


=Cheviot.= A descriptive term of somewhat loose application, being

used indiscriminately of late years to denote almost any sort of stout

woolen cloth finished with a rough and shaggy surface. Originally the

fabric known as cheviot was woven in England, from the strong, coarse

wool of the Cheviot sheep, whence the name.

It is at present a worsted or woolen fabric made of cheviot or "pulled

wool," slightly felted, with a short even nap on the surface and a

supple feel. Worsted cheviots, in plain colorings or of fancy effects,

are manufactured from combed yarn. Woolen cheviots are made from

carded yarn. The greater portion of this class of goods in carded

yarns contains little or no new wool in its make-up. Shoddy, mungo,

and a liberal mixture of cotton to hold it together, blended in the

many colorings, help to cover the deception. Prices range from 50

cents to $3.00. The material is plain or twill woven, and has many of

the qualities of serge.

The distinguishing feature of cheviot, whatever the grade of cloth, is

the finish, of which there are two kinds. One is known as the "rough"

finish, and the other as the "close" finish. Real cheviot is a

rough-finished fabric, composed of a strong, coarse wool and fulled to

a considerable degree. The process of finishing cheviot is simple, and

practically the same methods are followed for both the "rough" and the

"close" styles. On leaving the loom the cloth is first washed in soap

and water to remove any dirt or other foreign matter it may contain.

It is then fulled, which consists in shrinking the cloth both in

length and breadth, thus rendering the texture heavier and denser.

Next it is "gigged" or napped. This is accomplished by passing the

face of the matted cloth against a cylinder covered with sharp

pointed teasels which draw out the fibers from the yarn. This

operation is continued until a nap more or less dense is raised over

the entire surface.

From the gig the cloth is taken to the shearing machine, the revolving

blades of which cut the long, irregular nap down to a uniform level.

Sometimes the style of finish called for is that approaching a

threadbare cassimere, and in this case great care is necessary to

prevent the blades from cutting the yarn. In the rough finish the nap,

although sparingly raised, is comparatively long. Having been napped

and sheared, the cloth is pressed and carefully examined for defects,

then brushed, pressed, and highly steamed. When measured, rolled, and

steamed, it is ready for market, and is used mostly for ladies' and

gentlemen's suitings. The pattern and design are light stripes and

checks of small dimensions. Cheviot is a name given to many materials

used for suiting.

=Chinchilla.= Heavy coating with rough wavy face. The name is Spanish

for a fur-bearing animal of the mink species.

=Chudah.= Applied to billiard cloth; relates to color. Chudah is the

Hindoo name of a bright green cloth.

=Corduroy.= Heavy corded cotton material used for servants' livery.

The name is from the French Corde du Roi--king's cords.

=Cote Cheval.= In France corded cloth for riding costumes, such as

Bedford cord, is called cote cheval, the application being through

cheval, horse; cote, ribbed or lined.

=Coupure.= Coupure is French for cut through. Coupure or cut cashmere

is a cashmere weave showing lines cut through the twills lengthwise of

the piece.

=Covert.= Heavy twilled cloth in natural undyed shades, used in

England for men's overcoats worn while riding to covert in fox


=Delaine.= From the French "of wool"; applies to the most primitive

weave of plain wool yarn. Thirty years ago delaine was the staple

dress goods stock. It was made in solid colors.

=Diagonal Cheviot.= Same as cheviot, only in the weaving the pattern

is marked by zigzag lines or stripes.

=Doeskin.= Of the broadcloth range, made with shiny napped face, soft

finish, as the pelt of a doe.

=Drap d'Ete.= A heavy cashmere or double warp merino, with the back

teasled or scratched, used mostly for clergymen's clothing and in

lighter weights for women's dresses. The name is French for "cloth of


=Empress Cloth.= Similar to poplin; made of hard twisted worsted

filling and cotton warp. Was made a success in the early seventies of

the last century by the Empress Eugenie of France. Empress cloth was a

staple in all well-regulated dress goods lines.

=Epingline.= A fine corded fabric of wool or silk, showing the cords

woven close together and appearing as if lined with a pin point. This

application is from epingle, French for pin.

=Etamine.= French name for bolting or sifting cloth, made of silk for

sifting flour; applied to mesh or net weaves in America.

=Felt.= Fabric made by rolling or pressing a pulpy mass or mixture of

wool into a flat mat. The name is from the process. To felt is to mix

and press into shape.

=Flannel.= Wales appears to have been the original home of flannel,

and history informs us that this was the only textile produced in that

country for hundreds of years. It is constructed either of cotton or

wool, or of an intermixture of these fibers, and is a coarse-threaded,

loosely woven, light-weight fabric, more or less spongy and elastic,

with an unfinished, lusterless surface. Generally speaking all grades

of plain colored flannel are piece dyed, the soft open texture of the

goods permitting the fibers to absorb the dye as readily in the web as

in the yarn. Flannels are subjected to several finishing operations,

such as fulling, teaseling, pressing, and stretching. Flannels do not

require a great deal of fulling. All that is necessary is enough to

give a degree of stability and body to the goods.

=Dress Flannel.= All wool fabric used chiefly for women's winter

dresses; also called flannel suiting. It has a diversity of qualities,

colors, and styles of finish. It is commonly put up in double fold,

width from twenty-six to fifty inches.

=French Flannel.= A fine, soft twill, woven variety dyed in solid

shades, and also printed with patterns after the manner of calico;

used for morning gowns, dressing sacques, waists, etc.

=Shaker Flannel.= A variety of white flannel finished with

considerable nap, composed of cotton warp and woolen weft.

=Indigo Blue.= A superior all wool grade used in the manufacture

of men's suits and particularly for the uniform of members of the

G. A. R.

=Mackinaw.= The name applied to an extra heavy blanket-like material

used in cold climates by miners and lumbermen for shirts and


=Navy Twilled Flannel.= A heavy all wool variety commonly dyed indigo

blue, commonly used in the manufacture of overshirts for out-door

laborers, firemen, sailors, and miners.

=Silk Warp Flannel.= A high grade, pure variety of flannel woven with

a silk warp and a fine woolen weft. It is a very soft, light-weight,

loosely woven flannel and runs only in narrow widths, twenty-seven

inches. If the finishing process is carried beyond fulling the texture

is rendered hard and firm, the cloth thus losing its softness and

elasticity. In the teaseling process it is necessary for the nap to be

raised only slightly, and this is commonly done in the direction of

the grain or twist of the warp. The perfection of a flannel finish

lies not in the smooth appearance of the cloth, but in its full, rich

softness. Sometimes the nap is sheared, but more often it is pressed

down flat upon the face of the cloth. After a thorough drying, and

careful examination for defects, the goods are rolled on boards, and

are ready for market. It is used for infants' wear and shawls, for

undergarments, bed coverings, and also to some extent for outer

garments in weights and styles adapted for that purpose.

=Baby Flannel.= A very light-weight variety woven of fine, soft wool,

smooth finish, bleached pure white.

=Florentine.= A heavy twilled mohair fabric for men's wear which is

sold largely to Italy and Spain. The name is from Florence, Italy.

=Foule.= A twilled, unsheared cloth; that is, the face appears to be

unsinged, and shows the woolly roughness in a slight degree. The cloth

when woven in the gray is fulled or shrunken in width by soaking in

soapsuds and passing it while wet through holes of different sizes in

a steel plate. The name is from fouler, French, to full or shrink.

=Frieze.= Frieze is a coarse, heavy cloth with a curly surface and

made at first of lamb's wool. It is now made from coarse grades of

wool. It is thick and heavily napped, and is used in the manufacture

of warm outer garments, particularly for men's wear. It was named

after the people of Friesland in Holland in the 13th century, and is

famous to-day as an Irish fabric. Irish frieze has extraordinary

durability, and the fibers are the longest and strongest made. The

weave is plain, small twill, or herring bone. When not of a solid

color it is usually a mixture, the colors being mixed in the raw

state. The wool is dyed in the raw state in mass, then doubled after


=Gloria.= Plain weave of silk and wool, and silk and cotton; first

made for umbrella covering. Name means bright.

=Granada.= Popular weave of mohair, made in coating weight for

Spanish trade. Granada is a city in Spain.

=Grenadine.= Originally a plain, openwork, net-like fabric of silk,

mohair, cotton, or wool. We have grenadines in Jacquards and in set

patterns. The name is an adaptation of Granada.

=Henrietta Cloth.= A twilled cashmere of light weight and high finish,

originally made with silk warp and wool filling in Yorkshire, England.

The name was given in honor of Henrietta Maria of England, Queen of

Charles I. The silk warp, hand-woven fabric was first produced about

the year 1660.

=Homespun.= A rough, loosely woven material made from coarse yarn. It

is soft but rather clumsy. A general term used to designate cloth spun

or wrought at home. The homespun of the present day is a woolen fabric

in imitation of those fabrics made by hand before the introduction of

textile machinery. It is made of a coarse, rough, and uneven thread;

usually of plain weave and no felting. It was woven by the early

settlers of the Eastern and Southern States. It is now used as woolen

suiting for men's wear and in various kinds of coarse, spongy, shaggy

cloth for women's gowns.

=Hop Sacking.= A coarse bagging made commonly of a combination of hemp

and jute, used for holding hops during transportation. The name hop

sacking is also applied to a variety of woolen dress goods made from

different classes of yarn. It is made of carded woolen fabric of the

plainest kind. The cloth is characterized by an open weave, and a

square check-like mesh, the structure being designed to imitate that

of the coarse jute bagging. It has very little finish, is usually dyed

in solid colors, and is used for women's and children's dresses.

=Jeans.= Cotton or woolen coarse twilled fabric. In cotton used for

linings, in wool for men's cheap clothing. The name is from a Genoese

coin, relating to the price of the cloth; so much for one jean.

=Kersey.= A very heavy, felted, satin finish woolen cloth made with

the cotton weave or cross twill for face, and cotton weave or four

harness satin for back. It was originally made with fine Merino lamb's

wool for face, and somewhat coarser grade for back. The cheaper grades

are manufactured from a fine-fibered wool and shoddy, with low grades

of shoddy and mungo for back. It is named from an English town,

Kersey, where from the eleventh to the fifteenth century a large

woolen trade was carried on. The Kersey of early history was a coarse

cloth, known under different names, and before knitting was used for

stockings. In the construction of Kersey the cloth is woven a few

inches wider in the loom (and correspondingly longer) than it is to

appear in the finished state. This is done in order that the meshes

may be closed up in the fulling mill to insure a covering of threads.

Previous to fulling, however, the face of the cloth is gigged to

produce a good covering for the threads by forming a light nap, which

is fitted in. In the fulling operation, which comes next, the cloth is

shrunk to its proper width and density, usually to a degree rendering

it difficult to see the individual warp and filling threads, so

closely are they matted together. Fulling is followed by gigging, and

in this process a nap more or less heavy is raised on the face of the

goods by means of teasels. The cloth is run through the gig several

times and then sheared in order to render the fibers forming the nap

short, even, and of uniform length. Great care is exercised in the

shearing, as the nap must be cropped quite close and yet not expose

the threads or cut the face. The next operation is scouring or

steaming, in which live steam is forced through every part of the

goods for the purpose of developing the natural luster of the wool. In

case the goods are to be piece dyed, the dyeing follows scouring.

After steaming, the cloth is thoroughly matted and gigged again, care

being taken to avoid stirring up the ground nap. It is then dried and

the nap briskly brushed in a steam brusher and laid evenly in one

direction. Again the cloth is slightly steamed and primed, face up.

The result of this treatment is the production of a texture firm, yet

pliable, with a highly lustrous face and one not liable to wear rough

or threadbare. Kersey is used for overcoats.

=Kerseymere.= Light weight twilled worsted; same derivative of name as


=Linsey Woolsey.= Coarse cloth of linen and wool used as skirtings by

the British peasantry. The name is from the components of the cloth.

=Melrose.= Double twilled silk and wool fabric; named for Melrose, a

town on the Tweed, in Scotland.

=Melton.= A thick, heavy woolen fabric with short nap, feeling

somewhat rough. Meltons are made firm in the loom. The weaves for

single cloth meltons are usually plain, and three or four harness

twill. For double cloths the plain weave is used, or a weave with a

plain face and a one-third weave on the back. All trace of the weave

is destroyed in the finishing. The colors usually black or dark blue.

=Meltonette.= A cloth of the same general appearance as melton, of

light weight, for women's wear.

=Merino.= A fabric woven of the wool of the Merino sheep, twilled on

both sides, the twill being uneven. Merino resembles cashmere.

=Mohair Brilliantine.= A dress fabric resembling alpaca, of superior

quality, and sometimes finished on both sides. The name is from the

Arabic mukayyan, cloth of goat's hair. It is made from the long,

silky hair of the Angora goat of Asia Minor, a species which is being

introduced into the United States. The fabric has a hard, wiry feel,

and if made from the pure material has a high luster. It has cotton

warp and luster worsted filling. The weave is plain ground, or with a

small Jacquard figure, and when a very lustrous fabric is wanted, the

warp yarn is of finer counts than the filling yarn. The warp and

filling yarns are dyed previous to weaving. They may be of the same

color or different colors. The contrast of colors in connection with

the weave gives the fabric a pretty effect. Fabrics made with dyed

yarns are usually given a dry finish, that is, simply run through the

press and cylinder heated, after which they are rolled and then

packed. Those made with undyed filling are first scoured, then dyed,

after which they are run through a rotary press with fifty or sixty

pounds of steam heat. Mohair brilliantine is used for dress goods.

=Montagnac= is heavy overcoating. The French montagne, for mountain,

is the origin of the name, being for mountain wear.

=Orleans.= Cloth of cotton warp and bright wool fulling, made in

Orleans, France. Many of the so-called alpacas and mohairs of to-day

are Orleans. These fabrics are mostly cross-dyed, that is, fabrics

with warp and filling of different shades. After weaving they are

cross-dyed or redyed to give solid colors and glace effects.

=Panama Cloth= is a plain weave worsted fabric of no uniform

construction or finish. Fabrics sold under this name vary

considerably. They are of solid colors, usually piece dyed, and are

used for suitings.

=Prunella.= From the French prunelle, which means plum, a stout

worsted material named from its color, which is a purplish shade

similar to that of a ripe plum. The name was originally applied to a

kind of lasting of which clergymen's gowns were made. It is now used

to denote a variety of rich, satin-faced worsted cloth employed for

women's dresses. The fibers are worsted. Prunella is dyed either in

piece or yarn state and is hand finished.

=Sacking.= Plain solid color flannel in special shades for women's

dressing sacks, also applied to a fabric made of hemp for grain sacks.

=Sanglier.= A plain fabric of wiry worsted or mohair yarn, closely

woven, with a rough finished surface. Sanglier is French for wild

boar, the hairy, wiry cloth resembling the coat of the animal.

=Sebastopol.= A twill-faced cloth named from Sebastopol, the Russian

fortified town captured by the English and French in 1855.

=Serge.= Under this name are classed a large number of fabrics of

twill construction. In weight and texture a modern serge resembles

flannel, except that it is twill woven and composed of fine yarn

finished with a smoother surface. Serge comes from the Italian word

sergea, meaning cloth of wool mixed with silk. Serges are woven of

worsted, of silk, or of cotton yarn, and variously dyed, finished, and

ornamented, as silk serge, serge suiting, storm serge, mohair serge,

etc. Worsted serges of various kinds and degrees have been known since

the twelfth century. Worsted serge appears to have come into general

use as a material for men's wear in the sixteenth century. Modern

serges vary but little from those made two centuries ago. They are

dyed in a great variety of colors. On leaving the loom the cloth is

washed and scoured with soap and water to remove the dirt and oil (if

these remain the cloth will not take the dye properly). After dyeing,

it is passed through a pair of metal rollers under pressure, which

renders the surface more regular and even and of a better luster. This

process accomplishes more than is required, for it produces a bloom on

the surface which will show rain specks when in the garment, if it is

allowed to remain. This is ordinary serge. In order to make storm

serge it is necessary to remove part of the bloom, and to accomplish

this the cloth is steamed sufficiently to neutralize the effect of

pressing. Steaming deadens the bloom and prevents the effects of rain

showing on the cloth. The wearing qualities of serge are good, but it

gets a shine easily. It is used for dress goods and suitings. Serge

suiting used for men's clothing is a variety of light, wiry, worsted

yarn woven with a flat twill, and dyed black or in shades of blue,

fifty-four inches in width. Mohair serge is woven with a cotton warp

and a mohair filling, thirty-two inches in width. This is dyed in a

variety of colors and largely used as lining material for women's

clothes, men's coats, and overcoats. Storm serge, designed to

withstand exposure to stormy weather, is a coarse variety of worsted

dress goods produced in a wide range of colors and qualities. The

twill is wider, the texture stouter, and the surface rougher and

cleaner than that of ordinary serge. Iridescent serge is a variety of

worsted dress goods woven with warp and filling of different colors,

causing a shimmering or iridescent effect. Cravenette serge is a fine

twilled variety having a firm, closely woven texture, dyed black and

in colors, and is used for women's gowns, men's summer suits, etc.

Serge de Barry is a high-grade dress goods of fine texture, with fine

twill, and wiry feel.

=Shoddy= is made from old woolen stockings or rags, shredded or picked

by hand or machine, to render the yarn suitable for spinning a second

time, or to give a fiber that can be woven or felted with a wool or

cotton warp. The name has come to mean cheap, make-believe.

=Sicilian.= Heavy weight cotton warp, mohair filled cloth. Sicilienne,

the proper name, was made in the Island of Sicily as a heavy ribbed,

all silk fabric.

=Sultane.= Twilled cloth of silk and wool; finished in the rough, not

singed or sheared. The name is from Sultana, the first wife of the


=Tamise.= Similar to etamine, with a very close mesh, made first of

silk and wool. Tamis is French for sieve.

=Tartans.= Plaids of the Scottish clans worn by men in the Highlands

of Scotland as a diagonal scarf, fastened on one shoulder and crossing

the body. Each clan had a distinctive tartan or plaid. The name was

adapted from the French tiretaine, a thin woolen checked cloth.

=Thibet.= Heavy, coarse weave of goat's hair, made by the Thibetans in

Asia for men's wear.

=Tricot.= A heavy, compound fabric characterized by a line effect

running warp way or filling way of the piece, usually produced with

either woolen or worsted yarn. Tricot was originally a name given to

fabrics made of woolen yarn or thread by hand knitting, and is the

French word meaning knitting. The term was later applied to materials

made on a knitting frame and now known as jersey cloth. Since 1840 the

name tricot has been applied to finely woven woolen cloth, the weave

of which is intended to imitate the face effect of a knitted fabric.

The fabric is composed of woolen and worsted fibers, sometimes with

cotton warp woven so as to hide the cotton in finishing. The tricot

line is similar to the rib line in a ribbed cloth except that it is

not so pronounced. All tricots are constructed with two sets of warp

thread and are characterized by a texture which, while dense, is

singularly elastic, in this respect being somewhat similar to heavy

jersey cloth. Tricots are commonly dyed in plain colors, and are

finished clear so as to show the filling. When intended for trousers

they are ornamented with small, neat patterns.

=Tweed.= A rough unfinished fabric of soft, open, and flexible

texture, of wool or cotton and wool, usually of yarn of two or more

shades; originally the product of the weavers on the bank of the river

Tweed in Scotland. The face of the cloth presents an unfinished

appearance rather than a sharp and clearly defined pattern.

=Veiling= includes light weight, usually plain weave fabrics of

various constructions; generally made with singed or polished yarns.

They are in solid colors. The use is designated by the name.

=Venetian.= Venetian cloth has a worsted or cotton warp and worsted

filling; named from Venetia, a country around Venice. The warp yarns

are firmly twisted, the twist being in the opposite direction to the

twist in the filling yarn. Venetian is a trade term of wide

application, in use since early times as a descriptive title for

various fabrics, textures, and garments. One of the many varieties is

a species of twill weaving in which the lines or twills are of a

rounded form and arranged in a more or less upright position, hence a

closely woven worsted cloth. The name is also applied to other

fabrics, as a twilled lining fabric woven with a cotton warp and a

worsted filling known as Italian cloth. It is dyed in plain colors and

is piece or yarn dyed for men. For women's wear it has light weight

and plain colors with mixed effects and closely sheared nap. It is

finished smooth so as to show the yarns prominently. Venetian cloth

has not so much felting as broadcloth; it shows the weave more, but

has the same lustrous finish.

=Vigogne= or =Vicuna=. A soft wool cloth of the cheviot order, with

teasled face, made from the wool of the vicuna, a South American

animal. Vigogne is the French name for the animal.

=Vigoureux.= A name applied to a plain or twill mixture, woven of

undyed natural wool yarns. The French spinners found that the

strongest yarns were those of the undyed wool. Sometimes two or more

shades or tones are spun into one thread. The name is French for


=Voiles.= Voiles are plain weave worsted fabrics made with hard

twisted yarns. As clear a face as possible is secured in finishing,

the cloth being singed or sheared closely if the yarns are not made

comparatively free from loose fibers before being woven. Voiles are

dyed in solid colors, and are used principally for dress goods.

=Whipcord.= Hard twisted worsted twills, either solid or mixed colors.

The name is from the hard twisted lash of a whip.

=Worsted Diagonals= are characterized by prominent weave effects

running diagonally across the cloth. The goods are usually of a solid

color, and are given a finish which brings the weave into prominence.

Diagonals are used for suitings.

=Unfinished worsted= is a fabric woven with yarn with very little

twist in it, and finished so as to make it appear covered with loose

fibers, concealing the twill effect. After leaving the loom the cloth

is placed in a fulling machine which condenses the fibers, thus

increasing the density. It is then passed over hot presses after a

slight shearing.

=Finished Worsted= is woven with yarn with a considerable twist, and

finished in such a way as to show the construction of the cloth

clearly. The finishing consists simply of scouring the cloth and not

fulling it and then passing it through hot water baths between heavy

rolls to remove all the soap. It is then sheared and pressed.

=Zephyr.= Light worsted yarn, also light weight cotton gingham. Zephyr

is Greek for the light west wind.

=Zibeline.= A cloth manufactured with Merino lamb's wool for warp, and

a light wool mixed with camel's hair for filling; or, worsted warp and

camel's hair for filling; or either of the foregoing warps and a

mixture of wool, camel's hair, and fine cashmere for filling. The long

cashmere hair spreads over the surface. Used for ladies' tailor-made

coats or suits, according to weight. The name is derived from the

Latin word sabellum, meaning sable, and was applied originally to a

variety of long-haired fur generally thought to be the same as sable.

Zibeline has long hairs on its right side, some grades being almost

like fur.