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Dyeing Of Gloria






Gloria is a material which during the last few years has become of
considerable importance as furnishing a fine lustrous fabric at a
comparatively low price. The perfection to which the art of dyeing has
attained and the facilities now available to the dyer, enable this to
be produced more beautiful than ever, and naturally an increased
demand for it as a dress fabric has developed.

Gloria is woven from the two fibres, wool and silk, of a fine texture
to enable it to be used in the place of a silk fabric. Formerly it was
usually woven with the wool and silk yarns already dyed, especially
when a shot effect was to be produced, this being done by a twill
weave of the fabric and by the use of yarns of two very different
colours in the case of shot fabrics. By the introduction of
dye-stuffs derived from coal tar the cloth is now dyed after being
woven, care being taken to choose those which will dye the two fibres
equally well when self-shades are wanted, or those which will dye one
fibre better than the other, and thus allow a woven piece of gloria to
be dyed of two different colours. As most dyers know, the most
brilliant effects are obtained when the finished woven piece can be
dyed. Then all the grease and dirt which has become attached to it
during the operations of spinning the yarns and weaving the pieces can
be removed before dyeing, thus leaving the fabric in a perfectly clean
condition. Thus no after cleansing is required, whereas when the (p. 189)
fibres are dyed in the yarn the goods must be cleansed after weaving
to free them from dirt, and such cleaning has a somewhat deleterious
effect upon the brilliancy of the colour of the finished fabric, more
especially in the case of light colours.

Gloria may be in one colour only, a self-colour as it is called; this
case is comparatively simple, the only care that is required being to
select dyes which have an equal affinity for the two fibres or which
give but slightly different shades. Still, some good effects are
obtained when dyes are used which dye the silk and wool different
colours but give the combined effect of a self-colour. Or the fibre
may be purposely dyed in two different colours in some cases to give
the shot effect. This is much more troublesome, but with a little
care can be carried out with good results. The dyes available for
dyeing gloria may be classified, according to their behaviour in
regard to their dyeing of the two fibres, into three groups as
follows:--

Group A.--Those which will dye the two fibres of equal shade.

Group B.--Those which will dye the wool at boiling heat more readily
than the silk.

Group C.--Those which will dye the silk only in a cold bath.

Group A consists of those dyes which can be used in dyeing
self-colours on gloria from acid baths. It includes Alkali Blue,
Naphthylamine Blacks, Naphthol Green B, Indian Yellow, Croceine A Z,
Croceine Orange, Orange R, Brilliant Croceine M, Rose Bengale,
Thiocarmine R, Soluble Blue, Formyl Violet S 4 B, Acid Green, Croceine
Orange G, Carmoisin, Acid Violet 5 B, Fast Acid Violet 10 B, Fast
Green Bluish, Rhodamine, Silk Blue, Victoria Black, Archil, Turmeric,
Safranine, Auramine, Quinoline Yellow, Azoflavine, Victoria Blue and
Bismarck Brown.

Group B comprises those dye-stuffs which in a boiling acid (p. 190)
bath dye the wool deeper than the silks, in other words have more
affinity for the wool than the silk, Tropaeoline O, Acid Magenta,
Indigo Extract, Phloxine, Naphthol Yellow, Orange G G, Scarlet S, Azo
Red A, Eosines, Thiocarmine R, Naphthol Black B B, New Victoria Black
Blue, Erythrosine, and Roccelline.

The silk becomes tinted to a more or less extent when in such a bath,
but often the colour is readily removed either by subsequent passage
through boiling water or through hot soap liquor. A very good clearing
can be effected by the use of a bath of acetate of ammonia. Naphthol
Yellow, for instance, only imparts a very faint shade of yellow when
thus dyed, and this is easily removed by boiling-water treatment.

Group C.--Those dye-stuffs which will dye the silk more readily in a
cold bath than the wool. These comprise most of the basic dyes, such
as Thioflavine T, Safranine, Brilliant Green, Methyl Violet, Magenta,
New Methylene Blue, Bismarck Brown, Rose Bengale, Phloxine, Acid
Greens, Formyl Violet S 4 B, Rhodamine, Solid Blue, etc.

Gloria may be dyed either by a one-bath or two-bath process, and
either one or two colours, as may be required. In both cases advantage
may be taken of the different affinities of the two fibres for the
dye-stuffs used, as, for instance, the silk may be dyed brown, the
wool olive by using a mixture of Acid Yellow, Indigo extract and
Orange G. Indigo extract, Cochineal, Acid Magenta, Picric acid,
Naphthol Yellow, and Tartrazine dye the wool only at the boil.

The following recipes will serve to illustrate the foregoing remarks
and show how this important fabric may be dyed:--

Deep Gold.--The dye-bath is made from 2 lb. Indian Yellow, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, dyed at the boil. In this
and following recipes the quantities are for 100 lb.

Orange.--The dye-bath is made with 2 lb. Indian Yellow, 19 lb. (p. 191)
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Scarlet.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Scarlet 3 R, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Another scarlet is got from 2 lb.
sulphuric acid. Another scarlet is got from 2 lb. Croceine Scarlet
3 B, 2 lb. sulphuric acid, and 10 lb. Glauber's salt; by using the 5 B
Scarlet a bluer shade can be dyed. Azo Cochineal also dyes a fine
scarlet on gloria.

Crimson.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Carmoisin B, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The 7 B Croceine Scarlet also dyes a
fine crimson of a more fiery tone than the last, while 2-1/2 lb. Azo
Fuchsine G dyes a bluer shade of crimson.

Rose.--A fine rose is obtained with 2 lb. Rhodamine B, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt, and a little acetic acid. 1 lb. Phloxine dyes a fine
deep rose; the silk comes out a paler colour than the wool, but the
general effect is good.

Deep Maroon.--Make the dye-bath from 1-1/2 lb. Croceine A Z, 1/2 lb.
Indian Yellow, 1/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda.
Enter the goods, work at the boil for an hour, then cool down to
120 deg. F., enter an equal quantity of dye-stuff and work for an hour
longer.

Pale Maroon.--Make the dye-bath with 3 lb. Azo Bordeaux, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Black.--Prepare the dye-bath with 5 lb. Naphthylamine Black D, 1 lb.
Acid Green B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; work at
the boil for twenty minutes, then allow to cool to 120 deg. or 130 deg.
F., then work an hour longer. Another black can be dyed in a similar
way from 5 lb. Victoria Black B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid.

Violet.--Use 2 lb. Acid Violet 5 B, or 2 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. Fast Acid Violet 10 B
gives a bluer shade than the above.

Green.--Make the dye-bath with 2 lb. Acid Green G G, 10 lb. (p. 192)
Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil. This
gives a bright yellow shade of green; a bluer shade can be got from
Acid Green 6 B or Acid Green B, while Fast Green Bluish gives very
blue greens.

Coeruleum Blue.--Dye with 3/4 lb. Silk Blue B E S, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; this gives a very fine bright blue.

Deep Indigo Blue.--Dye with 4-1/2 lb. Solid Blue R, 2 lb.
Thiocarmine R paste, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Deep Violet Brown.--Dye with 3 lb. Croceine A Z, 1-1/4 lb. Indian
Yellow, 1-3/4 lb. Formyl Violet S 4 B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, and
2 lb. sulphuric acid for an hour at the boil, and for an hour at
120 deg. F.

Blue Black.--Make the dye-bath with 5 lb. New Victoria Blue Black,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil.
Another plan is to use 5 lb. Naphthylamine Black 4 B and 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda.

Dark Grey.--Prepare a dye-bath with 3 lb. Naphthol Black 3 B, 4 lb.
Naphthol Green B, 1 lb. Amaranth, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 8 lb.
copperas, and 3 lb. sulphuric acid, working at the boil for an hour
and then rinsing in water to which a little acetate of ammonia has
been added. The silk is dyed grey and the wool a black.

Brown.--A fine yellow brown shot with lilac is obtained by first
dyeing in a bath of 5 lb. Naphthol Yellow, 10 lb. Glauber's salt and
2 lb. sulphuric acid. Wash in hot water, then dye with 2-1/2 lb. Solid
Blue P G, 1-1/2 oz. Methyl Violet B O, and 5 lb. acetic acid in the
cold.

Wool, Orange; Silk, Pale Green.--Dye the wool with 1-1/2 lb. Orange
G G, 6 oz. Naphthol Green B, 2-1/2 oz. Naphthol Red C, 10 lb.
bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid; and the silk with
1/2 lb. Milling Yellow and 1/2 lb. Acid Green.

Wool, Black; Silk, Light Grey.--Dye in a bath with 5 lb. (p. 193)
Anthracene Acid Black S T, 4-1/2 oz. Fast Yellow S, 10 lb. bisulphate
of soda, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The silk is cleaned by boiling for
ten minutes in a soap bath.

Wool, Bright Red; Silk, Blush Rose.--The gloria silk is dyed in a
bath of 3 lb. Naphthol Red O, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid. After dyeing, soap for ten minutes.

Wool, Black; Silk, Green.--Dye the wool in a bath containing 5 lb.
Anthracene Acid Black S T, 5 oz. Fast Yellow S, 2 lb. oxalic acid,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 15 lb. acetic acid. Work the goods in this
at the boil for an hour, then lift, add 3/4 lb. bichromate of potash,
and boil for twenty minutes longer. Clean the silk by boiling in a
bath of soap for twenty minutes, then dye in a cold bath containing
1 lb. Thioflavine T and 1 lb. Brilliant Green.

Wool, Dark Maroon; Silk, Pale Blue.--After the manner described in
the first recipe, dye the wool with 1 lb. Orange G G, 3 lb. Naphthol
Green B, 2 lb. Brilliant Cochineal 2 R, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and
2 lb. sulphuric acid. Dye the silk with 1-1/2 lb. Pure Blue O T.

Wool, Violet; Silk, Green.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Acid Violet
4 B, 9 oz. Indigotine extra, 10 lb. bisulphate of soda, and 2 lb.
sulphuric acid. The dyeing is carried on at the boil until the bath is
exhausted of colour, whereupon the goods are well rinsed in water.
They are next soaped at 160 deg. F. for ten minutes in a liquor containing
1/2 oz. soap per gallon, then rinsed. Next a dye-bath is made with
1 lb. Acid Green, 8 oz. Milling Yellow O, and 1 lb. acetic acid, the
goods being treated in this in the cold until the desired shade is
obtained, then lifted, rinsed and dried.

Violet and Pink.--A fine effect of violet shot with pink is obtained
by dyeing in a bath of 1-1/2 lb. Indigo extract, 1/2 lb. Rhodamine B,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Brown Olive and Green is dyed in a bath made with 1 lb. (p. 194)
Quinoline Yellow, 1 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 1/4 lb. Fast Green Bluish,
10 lb. Glauber's salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. By using about half
the above quantities of dye-stuffs a drab effect shot with green can
be obtained.

Crimson and Green.--The first bath is made from 4 lb. Azo Red A and
10 lb. bisulphate of soda, worked for an hour at the boil; then treat
in a weak bath of acetate of ammonia; and dye the silk in a cold bath
of 2 oz. Solid Green Crystals, 1/4 lb. Thioflavine T, and 5 lb. acetic
acid.

Violet and Pink.--Dye in a bath of 1-1/4 lb. Indigo extract, 10 lb.
Glauber's salt and 2 lb. sulphuric acid.

Brown and Pink.--This is dyed in a bath made from 1-1/4 lb. Fast
Yellow, 5 oz. Rhodamine B, 1/4 lb. indigo extract, 10 lb. Glauber's
salt, and 2 lb. sulphuric acid. The silk dyes a pale pink while the
general effect is that of a fine fawn brown with a reddish shot
effect.

Dark Green and Pale Crimson.--This is done in two baths, the first
is made with 8 lb. Naphthol Green B, 10 lb. Glauber's salt, 3 lb.
sulphuric acid, and 7 lb. copperas, working at the boil; then treat
with hot water and dye in a fresh bath with 6 oz. Safranine Prima and
5 lb. acetic acid in the cold. The combined effect of the two is that
of a brown shot with green.

Orange and Green.--This gives a splendid shot effect and is dyed as
follows. Work for an hour at the boil, for thirty minutes in a bath of
boiling water, then enter into a cold bath of 5 oz. Thioflavine T,
3 oz. Brilliant Green, and 3 lb. acetic acid; work for thirty minutes,
or until shade is obtained.

Orange and Blue.--Use first dye-bath as in the last, then, after
washing in hot water, dye in a bath of 2 oz. New Methylene Blue N, and
3 lb. acetic acid.

Silk, Sky Blue; Wool, Drab.--Make a dye-bath with 20 lb. acetic
acid, 3/4 oz. Indigotine, 3 oz. Fast Yellow extra and 2 oz. Azo (p. 195)
Fuchsine G. Work at the boil for one hour at 100 deg. F., then pass
into a bath of 3/4 oz. Turquoise Blue B B, and 2 lb. acetic acid,
working for half an hour at 80 deg.

Silk, Pink; Wool, Pale Blue.--Make a dye-bath with 15 lb. acetic
acid and 4-1/2 oz. Indigotine. Work at the boil for an hour, then pass
into a bran bath as before; next enter into a dye-bath at 80 deg. to
90 deg. of 3/4 oz. Brilliant Rhoduline R B, 1-1/2 oz. Auramine I I,
and 2 lb. acetic acid.

Silk, Green; Wool, Dark Crimson.--The first bath is made from 3 lb.
Azo Fuchsine G, 1 lb. Indian Yellow G and 20 lb. acetic acid; then
follows the bran and the final dye-bath, which is made from 1-1/2 oz.
Imperial Green G I, and 2 lb. acetic acid.

Silk, Orange; Wool, Black.--A dye-bath is made from 2 lb.
Indigotine, 2 lb. Indian Yellow G, 1/2 lb. Rhodamine G, and 20 lb.
acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour; then lift, wash and dry.

Silk, Light Green; Wool, Dark Blue.--Make a dye-bath from 1/2 lb.
Azo Fuchsine G, 2 lb. Fast Light Green, and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work
at the boil to shade; then lift, wash and dry.

Silk, Yellow; Wool, Terra Cotta.--A dye-bath is made from 1-1/2 oz.
Indigotine, 3/4 lb. Azo Fuchsine G, 9 oz. Indian Yellow R, and 20 lb.
acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour; then lift, wash and dry.

Silk, Light Sea Green; Wool, Pale Sage.--Make the dye-bath with
1/2 lb. Fast Yellow extra, 3 oz. Azo Fuchsine G, 1-1/2 oz. Fast Green
bluish, and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work as in the last recipe.

Silk, Light Green; Wool, Brown.--Make the dye-bath with 1 lb. Azo
Fuchsine G, 2-1/2 lb. Fast Yellow extra, 1/2 lb. Fast Green bluish,
and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one hour.

Silk, Pale Blue; Wool, Crimson.--Make a dye-bath with 2 lb. (p. 196)
Azo Crimson L and 20 lb. acetic acid. Work at the boil for one
hour, then pass into a bran bath for half an hour at 90 deg. F.,
and into another bath containing 1/2 lb. Turquoise Blue G, and
2 lb. acetic acid, at 90 deg. F., for half an hour; then wash
and dry.

Silk, Light Drab; Wool, Lavender.--Make the first dye-bath from
3 oz. Indigotine, 2 oz. Azo Fuchsine G, and 20 lb. acetic acid. After
working an hour at the boil, pass into a bran bath for half an hour,
afterwards topping with 1-1/2 oz. Bismarck Brown R and 2 lb. acetic
acid.





Next: Operations Following Dyeing Washing Soaping Drying

Previous: Dyeing Union (mixed Cotton And Wool) Fabrics



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