Recipes For Dyeing
(1) INDIGO VAT
Take 3 oz. well ground indigo, mix into a paste with hot water. Slake
3 oz. Quicklime and boil with 6 oz. Potash or Soda ash in sufficient
water, let it settle, pour off the clear liquor in which dissolve the
indigo paste, boil or keep hot 24 hours; it should then have the
consistency of thick cream, with much froth. During the boiling, slake
another 3 oz. quicklime, boil in a pint of water for 15 minutes, let
settle, pour off the clear liquor in which dissolve 4 to 5 oz. green
copperas. Add the indigo and copperas solutions to 5 gallons water,
stir well, let vat rest, stir once or twice during 24 hours or until
it appear ready for dyeing. Before use it should be stirred and let
stand 2 hours. It should be a clear yellowish green with much scum.
The cotton to be dyed should be entered in dips of increasing lengths
of time, as 1, 5, 10, 20 minutes, and aired in between, according to
depth of shade required. It should then be well washed, passing
through water slightly acidulated with Sulphuric acid (a teaspoonful
to 1 gallon). When this vat appears exhausted and turns a dark colour
it may be revived by adding 2 or 3 oz. Green Copperas dissolved as
before. When again exhausted, more of all the ingredients must be
(2) LIME COPPERAS VAT
2 oz. Indigo, 4 oz. Copperas, 5 oz. Quicklime (fresh). Mix Indigo into
a paste with hot water. Dissolve copperas in hot water. Slake lime.
Fill earthenware jar with about 5 gallons cold water and add the
Indigo, copperas and slaked lime in that order. Stir well, cover and
let stand till next day or until vat is in proper condition; it should
be clear brownish yellow with possible blue scum. There will be some
sediment. The dyeing process is as in (1).
(For 1 lb. cotton.) The Turkey Red process is long and difficult. (1)
Boil yarn 6 to 8 hours in a solution of carbonate of soda, 1-1/2 oz.,
wash well and dry. (2) Prepare a solution of 2 fluid ozs. Turkey Red
oil, 2 ozs. carbonate of soda at 100 deg.F., work cotton in this till
thoroughly saturated, wring out, dry. (3) Repeat No. 2. (4) Repeat No.
2. (5) Steep 3 or 4 hours in solution of 1 oz. carbonate of soda at
100 deg.F., wring out, dry. (6) Repeat No. 5 with a slight increase of
soda. (7) as No. 6. (8) Steep 10 hours in water at 100 deg.F., dry. The
cotton should now be clear white. (9) Steep 4 hours in solution of
1-1/2 oz. tannic acid or 4 oz. Galls, at 100 deg.F., wring out, dry.
(10) Steep 24 hours in solution made by dissolving 10 oz. alum in hot
water, and slowly adding 2-1/2 oz. carbonate of soda crystals, wring
out and dry. The cotton is now grey coloured. (11) Dye with 2 lbs.
madder. Bring slowly to the boil, boil for 1 hour, a white scum on the
surface denotes the cotton has absorbed all its colour. A teaspoonful
of chalk may be added to the dye-bath. The cotton is now dark claret
colour. (12) To brighten, boil 3 or 4 hours in a solution of 1/2 oz.
carbonate of soda crystals and 1/2 oz. soap. The bath should be
covered, except for a small outlet for the steam which otherwise
should be retained as much as possible. (13) The cotton can be further
brightened by boiling with 1/2 oz. soap and a teaspoonful of Tin. Wash
(For 1 lb.) After boiling out in soda, wash and dry. Steep overnight
in a hot bath of 1-1/2 oz. Tannic acid or 4 oz. Galls, dry, steep in
cold solution of 1/4 lb. alum and 1/2 oz. chalk, dry, add 2 oz. more
alum to solution and steep as before, wash and dry. Dry with 12 oz.
Madder, bring to boil in 1 hour and boil a few minutes, rinse, re-dye
as above, pass through warm soap bath, 2 oz., wash and dry.
(For 1 lb.) Mordant twice in Aluminium acetate, as described for silk
(page 73), or in 1/4 lb. alum and 1-1/2 oz. chalk, steeping in cold
solution. Pass through weak bath of chloride of lime, wash, dry. Dye
with 2-1/2 lbs. weld and 1/2 oz. copper sulphate, boil for 1 hour,
then boil with soap. Or dye with 2 to 3 oz. Quercitron, which should
be brought slowly to the boil and boiled for a few minutes only.
(For 1 lb.) Steep overnight in hot bath of 1-1/2 oz. Tannic acid, or 4
oz. Galls, wring out, dry. Work 2 hours in bath of 1/4 lb. alum and
1/2 oz. chalk, dry, pass through weak bath of chloride of lime about 1
oz., dry. Return to alum bath and repeat process, wash well, dye
slowly with 1-1/2 oz. Flavin.
(For 1 lb.) Boil 2 oz. Annatto with 1 oz. carbonate of soda crystals
for 1/2 hour, then add to a bath containing a teaspoonful of Turkey
Red Oil, boil for 10 minutes. Take off boil, enter yarn, boil for
1-1/4 hours, let cool to hand heat, remove yarn, wash slightly and dry
(For 1 lb.) Enter in one bath 1 oz. Cutch, in another 1/2 oz. Chrome.
Enter cotton in cutch bath, boil 20 minutes, wring out, boil 10
minutes in chrome bath. Add 6 oz. fustic or 1 oz. flavin to cutch
bath, re-enter cotton. Repeat above until the required depth of colour
is reached, finish in cutch bath to obtain deepest shade, which may be
darkened by adding 1 drachm or so copper sulphate. A greyish drab may
be got by adding ferrous sulphate. All shades of brown may be obtained
by decreasing or increasing the amount of cutch or by adding a little
logwood or fustic, in which latter case the cotton should have been
(For 1 lb.) Wash, steep overnight in hot solution of tannic acid, 1
oz., wring out without washing, work for 10 minutes in soda bath, at a
temperature of 50 deg. to 60 deg.C., 1-1/4 oz. Wring out, work in cold
solution of copperas, 1-1/4 oz., for 1/2 hour, return to soda bath for
1/4 hour. Wash, dye in bath of logwood 12 oz., madder 2-1/2 oz., and
fustic 8 oz. Enter into cold bath and raise gradually to boiling, boil
for 1/2 hour, pass through warm solution of chrome, 1 oz., wash, work
through warm soap bath.
Greys may be obtained with 1 to 5 per cent of logwood after mordanting
in a weak solution of iron.
Next: The Zinc-lime Indigo Vat