The fruit of this plant is known in the West Indies as the star apple, the interior of which, when cut across, shows ten cells, and as many seeds disposed regularly round the center, giving a star-like appearance, as stars are generally represen... Read more of Chrysophyllum Cainito at Home Gardening.caInformational Site Network Informational
     Home - Vegetable Dyes - The Dyeing Of Woollen Fabrics - Textiles For Commercial, Industrial, And Domestic


One of the most important operations following that of dyeing is the
washing with water to free the goods, whether cotton or woollen, from
all traces of loose dye, acids, mordanting materials, etc., which it
is not desirable should be left in, as they might interfere with the
subsequent finishing operations. For this purpose a plentiful supply
of good clean water is required, this should be as soft as possible,
free from any suspended matter which might settle upon the dyed goods
and stain or speck them.

Washing may be done by hand, as it frequently was in olden days, by
simply immersing the dyed fabrics in a tub of water, shaking, then
wringing out, again placing in fresh water to finish off. Or if the
dye-works were on the banks of a running stream of clean water the
dyed goods were simply hung in the stream to be washed in a very
effectual manner.

In these days it is best to resort to washing machines adapted to deal
with the various kinds of fibrous materials and fabrics, in which they
can be subjected to a current of water.

#Loose Wool.#--If this has been dyed by hand then the washing may also
be done in the same way by hand in a plain vat. If the dyeing has been
done on a machine then the washing can be done on the same machine.

#Yarn in Hanks.#--A very common form of washing machine is shown (p. 202)
in figure 25. As will be seen it consists of a wooden vat, over which
are arranged a series of revolving reels on which the hanks are hung,
the hanks are kept in motion through the water and so every part of
the yarn is thoroughly washed. Guides keep the hanks of yarn separate
and prevent any entanglement one with another. A pipe delivers
constantly a current of clean water, while another pipe carries away
the used water. Motion is given to the reels in this case by a donkey
engine attached to the machine, but it may also be driven by a belt
from the main driving shaft of the works. This machine is very

#Piece Goods.#--Piece goods are mostly washed in machines, of which two
broad types may be recognised. First those where the pieces are dealt
with in the form of ropes or in a twisted form, and second those where
the pieces are washed while opened out full width. There are some
machines in which the cloths may be treated either in the open or rope
form as may be thought most desirable.

Figure 26 represents a fairly well-known machine in which the (p. 203)
pieces are treated in a rope-like form. It consists of a trough
in which a constant current of water is maintained; at one end of this
trough is a square beating roller, at the other a wood lattice roller,
above the square beater and out of the trough are a pair of rollers
whose purpose is to draw the cloth through the machine and also partly
to act as squeezing rollers. As will be seen the cloth is threaded in
rope form spirally round the rollers, passing in at one end and out at
the other, pegs in a guide rail serving to keep the various portions
separate. The square beater in its revolutions has a beating (p. 204)
action on the cloth, tending to more effectual washing. The lattice
roller is simply a guide roller.

Figure 27 shows a washing machine very largely used in the wool-dyeing
trade. The principal portion of this machine is of wood.

The internal parts consist of a large wooden bowl, or oftener, as in
the machine under notice, of a pair of wooden bowls which are pressed
together by springs with some small degree of force. Between these
bowls the cloth is placed, more or less loosely twisted up in a rope
form, and the machines are made to take four, six or eight pieces or
lengths at one time, the ends of the pieces being stitched together so
as to make a continuous band. A pipe running along the front of the
machine conveys a constant current of clean water, which is caused to
impinge in the form of jets on the pieces of cloth as they run through
the machine, while an overflow carries away the used water. The goods
are run in this machine as long as is considered necessary for a
sufficient wash, which may take half to one and a half hours.

In figure 30 is shown a machine designed to wash pieces in the broad
or open state. The machine contains a large number of guide rollers
built more or less open, round which the pieces are guided, the ends
of the pieces being stitched together, pipes carrying water are so
arranged that jets of clean water impinge on and thoroughly wash cloth
as it passes through, the construction of the guide rollers
facilitating the efficient washing of the goods.

Next: Soaping

Previous: Operations Following Dyeing Washing Soaping Drying

Add to Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network

Viewed 3258