List Of Lichens Used By The Peasantry Of Different Countries For Wool Dyeing
SHADES OF RED, PURPLE AND ORANGE
Borrera ashney. Chutcheleera. India.
Conicularia aculeata. var. spadicea. Brown prickly
cornicularia. Canary Islands, Highland Mountains.
Evernia prunastri. Ragged hoary Lichen. Stag's horn
Lichen. Found in Scotland on trees.
Isidium corallinum. White crottle. On rocks in Scotland.
I. Westringii. Westring's Isidium. Norway and Sweden.
Lecanora tartarea. Crotal, Crottle, Corkur, Corcir,
Korkir. Found in the Scotch Highlands and Islands, growing
on rocks; used for the manufacture of Cudbear in Leith and
L. parella. Light Crottle, Crabs Eye Lichen. Found in
Scotland, France and England, on rocks and trees; formerly
celebrated in the South of France in the making of the dye
called Orseille d'Auvergne.
L. haematomma. Bloody spotted lecanora, Black lecanora.
Found in Scotland on rocks and trees.
Lecidea sanguinaria. Red fruited lecidea. In Scotland, on
Nephroma parilis. Chocolate coloured nephroma. Scotland,
on stones. Said to dye blue.
Parmelia caperata. Stone Crottle, Arcel. Found in North of
Ireland and Isle of Man, on trees. Said to dye brown, orange
lemon and yellow.
P. conspersa. Sprinkled parmelia. Found growing on rocks
P. omphalodes. Black Crottle, Cork, Corker, Crostil or
Crostal (Scotch Highlands). Arcel (Ireland). Kenkerig
(Wales). Alaforel leaf (Sweden). Found on rocks, especially
Alpine, in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and Scandinavia. One of
the most extensively used dye lichens. It yields a dark
brown dye readily to boiling water, and it is easily fixed
to yarns by simple mordants. It is stated to yield a red,
crimson or purple dye.
P. saxatilis. Crottle, stane-raw, Staney-raw (Scotland).
Scrottyie (Shetland). Sten-laf, Sten-mossa (Norway and
Sweden). Found on rocks and stones in Scotland, Shetland,
and Scandinavia. In winter the Swedish peasantry wear home
made garments dyed purple by this Lichen. By the Shetlanders
it is usually collected in August, when it is considered
richest in colouring matter.
Ramalina farinacea. Mealy ramalina. On trees in England.
R. scopulorum. Ivory-like ramalina. Scotland, on maritime
rocks. A red dye.
Rocella tinctoria. Orseille. Grows in the South of France,
on the rocks by the sea.
Solorina crocea. Saffron yellow solorina. In Scotland, on
mountain summits. The colouring matter is ready formed and
abundant in the thallus.
Sticta pulmonacea. On trees.
Umbilicaria pustulata. Blistered umbilicaria. Found on
rocks in Norway and Sweden.
Urceolaria calcarea. Corkir, Limestone Urceolaria. Found
in Scotland, Western Islands, Shetland and Wales, growing on
U. cinerea. Greyish Urceolaria. In England, on rocks.
U. scruposa. Rock Urceolaria. Grows on rocks in hilly
districts in England.
Usnea barbata. Bearded Usnea. Pennsylvania and South
America. On old trees. Stated to dye yarn orange.
U. florida. Flowering Usnea. Pale greenish yellow or
U. plicata. Plaited Usnea. On trees.
SHADES OF BROWN
Alectoria jubata. Horsehair Lichen, Rock hair. On fir
trees in England. Pale greenish brown.
Borrera flavicans. Yellow borrera. On trees in Germany.
Cetraria Islandica. Iceland moss. Iceland heaths and
hills. It yields a good brown to boiling water, but this dye
appears only to have been made available in Iceland.
Cetraria juniperina. En-mossa. On trees in Scandinavia.
Evernia flavicans. Wolf's-bane evernia. On trees in
Scandinavia. Gamboge yellow.
Gyrophora cylindrica. Cylindrical gyrophora. On rocks in
Iceland. Greenish brown. Also G. deusta.
G. deusta. Scorched-looking gyrophora. On rocks in
Scandinavia. Linnaeus states that it furnishes a paint
called "Tousch", much used in Sweden.
Lecanora candelaria. Ljus massa. On trees in Sweden.
Lecidea atro-virens. Map lichen. On rocks, Scandinavia.
Lepraria chlorina. Brimstone coloured lepraria.
Scandinavia, on rocks.
L. Iolithus. Viol-massa. Sweden, on stones. Gives stones
the appearance of blood stains.
Parmelia omphalodes. In Scandinavia and Scotland.
Withering asserts it yields a purple dye, paler, but more
permanent, than orchil; which is prepared in Iceland by
steeping in stale lye, adding a little salt and making it up
into balls with lime.
P. parietina. Common yellow wall lichen, Wag-massla
Wag-laf. England and Sweden, on trees, rocks, walls,
palings. Used to dye Easter eggs. Used in Sweden for wool
P. physoides. Dark crottle, Bjork-laf. Found in Sweden,
Scotland and Scandinavia, on rocks and trees.
Sticta pulmonacea. Oak lung, Lungwort, Aikraw Hazelraw,
Oak-rag, Hazel crottle, Rags. Found on trees in England,
Scotland, North of Ireland, Scandinavia. It dyes wool orange
and is said to have been used by the Herefordshire peasantry
to dye stockings brown. Some species yield beautiful saffron
or gamboge coloured dyes, e.g. S. flava crocata, aurata.
S. scrobiculata. Aik-raw, Oak rag. Found on trees in
Scotland and England.